Golf Course Maintenance In The Era Of The Chinese Coronavirus – CGSA’s COVID-19 Maintenance & Facility Guidelines – Improved & Modified Version – 2020 04 16

 

 

 

 

 

Overview

 

The Chinese Wuhan
Bat-Coronavirus Pandemic

 

 

 

The Chinese ⁄ Wuhan Bat-Coronavirus is also known as the Wuhan Virus and COVID-19. 

 

This bat-virus is an ongoing public health emergency of international concern involving major outbreaks of a deadly infectious disease that has spread globally, resulting in the 2019–20 pandemic. 

 

The virus was precipitated by the Chinese deviant life-style of raising and breeding disease-infected wild-animals, like bats, beavers, cats, dogs, lizards, porcupines, raccoons, and snakes, for food, companionship, and intimacy. 

 

In the era of the Chinese ⁄ Wuhan Bat-Coronavirus pandemic, spring-time golf course openings have been delayed, until recently. 

 

 

 

Golf Course Openings

 

 

On May 1st, 2020, the province of Ontario took a half-step towards when Premier Doug Ford announced that golf courses could begin to prepare their properties    clearly, opening golf courses will be just around the corner. 

 

The province of Nova Scotia has made a similar announcement for opening its golf season    driving ranges may open immediately, and courses can begin preparations to open-up imminently. 

 

In the rest of the nation, golf courses are open, or have scheduled dates to open. 

 

The provinces of British Columbia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, and Alberta are open and running. 

 

Manitoba will open on May 4th, 2020. 

 

Newfoundland and Labrador on May 11th, 2020. 

 

Saskatchewan on May 15th, 2020. 

 

There is no timeline yet for golf courses in Quebec, although pro shops throughout most of the province have been allowed to open as of May 4th, 2020; Montreal area pro shops by May 11th.

 

These openings are occurring with no thanks to most #@!!% cursed trade associations. 

 

See next section. 

 

 

Reference — Positive Waves — 2020 05 01 — Golf Courses Can Begin Preparations In Ontario — TSN

 

 

 

Cursing The Trade Associations ?

 

 

Let us #@!!% curse some of the golf industry’s trade associations   

 

During the pandemic, Canadian Golf Superintendents Association ( CGSA ) has lobbied to rob golfers the freedom to safely practice the game of golf. 

 

Incredibly, CGSA has supported the temporary closure of golf courses to the public and / or golf club members. 

 

CGSA defies the overwhelming number of superintendents who have supported the opening of golf courses during the era of the Chinese ⁄ Wuhan Bat-Coronavirus pandemic. 

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/2020/04/25/updates-on-the-chinese-wuhan-coronavirus-to-golf-or-not-to-golf-british-columbia-saskatchewan-new-york-michigan-trade-association-betrayals-sunshine-as-a-sanitizer-2019-04-0/

 

These superintendents have been prepared to provide golfers with what they want    high-quality playing conditions & aesthetics, while keeping the property safe from the spread of the virus. 

 

CGSA, and other trade associations, have used the perverted logic that older golfers are considered more vulnerable to the pandemic, and therefore, golf courses must be closed to the vast majority of younger players. 

 

They have betrayed the golf industry ! 

 

CGSA is run by fanatжcal and uneducated leaders who fail to make any correct decisions. 

 

They must be stopped. 

 

Observers have repeatedly warned CGSA-leaders to stop supporting anti-pesticide prohibition, to stop validating those lunatжcs who seek to harm the turf maintenance profession, and to stop wagging-the-dog with bogus pesticides. 

 

And, they are being asked to stop supporting closures because of the Chinese ⁄ Wuhan Bat-Coronavirus pandemic. 

 

Perhaps we should not ascribe malice to CGSA-leaders for their failures, which can adequately be explained by incompetence. 

 

Nevertheless, CGSA-leaders have the audacity to publish « COVID-19 Maintenance & Facility Guidelines », a poorly-written document that has required dozens and dozens of corrections, improvements, and modifications. 

 

See segments below. 

 

 

 

No Hopeful Future ?

 

 

We are living in the era of the Chinese ⁄ Wuhan Bat-Coronavirus pandemic ! 

 

We are also living in the 9|11 era of fanatжcal golf-hating & anti-pesticide terrжrism ! 

 

CGSA has defiantly supported the COVID-19 closures of golf courses, just as it has maliciously supported the prohibition against conventional pest control products. 

 

And, CGSA has failed to plan for the inevitable and total revocation of its pesticide ban exception status in most jurisdictions across Canada. 

 

Future generations will ask the question    why has CGSA acted this way ?!?! 

 

Why ?!?!  WHY ?!?! 

 

CGSA has failed to directly and effectively address the most serious threats of annihilation against the golf industry ! 

 

Furthermore, no one at CGSA has any expertise regarding these threats against the golf industry ! 

 

CGSA-leaders are clueless beyond comprehension !

 

There will be no hopeful future for anyone in the golf industry unless its trade associations, and CGSA in particular, change dramatically. 

 

Otherwise, CGSA can only be described as a monumental failure. 

– 





Explore The Following Links 

 

 

COVID-19 To Golf Or Not To Golf During COVID-19 LINK

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/2020/04/25/updates-on-the-chinese-wuhan-coronavirus-to-golf-or-not-to-golf-british-columbia-saskatchewan-new-york-michigan-trade-association-betrayals-sunshine-as-a-sanitizer-2019-04-0/

 

 

COVID-19 Trade Associations LINK

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/2020/04/05/positive-waves%e2%96%a1%e2%96%a1%e2%96%a1-%e2%96%a1%e2%96%a1%e2%96%a1golf-industry-trade-associations%e2%96%a1%e2%96%a1%e2%96%a1-%e2%96%a1%e2%96%a1%e2%96%a1responding-thoughtfully-to-chinese-coronavir/

 

 

COVID-19 Golf Courses To Reopen In The Era Of Coronavirus LINK

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/2020/04/19/golf-courses-will-reopen-in-the-era-of-chinese-wuhan-coronavirus-2020-04-10-les-terrains-de-golf-visent-rouvrir-dans-lre-du-coronavirus-chinois-de-wuhan/

 

 

COVID-19 Cordova Bay Golf Course LINK

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/2020/03/28/positive-waves-cordova-bay-golf-course-responding-to-chinese-coronavirus-2020-03-00/

 

 

COVID-19 Golf Course Maintenance LINK

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/2020/04/14/golf-course-maintenance-in-the-era-of-the-chinese-coronavirus-2019-03-04-00/

 

 

Canadian Golf Superintendents Association The Failed Trade Association LINK

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/2018/02/02/the-failed-cgsa-take-over-by-golf-course-owners-why-are-cgsa-leaders-allowing-the-golf-industrys-greatest-train-wreck-crisis-2018-01-26/

 

 

Canadian Golf Superintendents Association The Media History LINK

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/toc/canadian-golf-superintendents-association/

 

 

Canadian Golf Superintendents Association Take-Over By Golf Course Owners — Critical Issues LINK

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/2018/02/02/the-failed-cgsa-take-over-by-golf-course-owners-why-are-cgsa-leaders-allowing-the-golf-industrys-greatest-train-wreck-crisis-2018-01-26/

 

 

Golf Industry Critical Issues That Must Be Addressed LINK

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/2018/06/21/the-golf-industry-is-on-a-collision-course-the-critical-issues-that-must-be-addressed-by-the-golf-industry-now-2018-06-21/

 

 

Golf Industry Looming Shipwreck & Pesticide Ban Exception Status LINK

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/2015/12/21/golf-industrys-looming-shipwreck-predictions-concerning-the-loss-of-its-pesticide-exception-status-2009-encore-report/

 

 

Golf Industry Attacks Against The Golf Industry LINK

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/2019/01/21/attacks-against-the-golf-industry-updated-improved-2019-01-21/

 

 

Golf Industry Can The Golf Industry’s Trade Associations Be Trusted ?!?! LINK

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/2016/06/15/the-road-so-far-can-the-golf-industrys-trade-associations-be-trusted/

 

 

Golf Industry No Hopeful Future LINK

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/Force-Of-Nature-GOLF-ATTACK-Ontario-Closures-Business-Disintegration-Golf-Facilities-For-Sale-No-Hopeful-Future-1.pdf

 

 

Golf Industry The End Is Near LINK

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/2016/08/29/pesticide-truths-newsletter-2016-08-30-golf-industry-edition-month-of-august-the-end-is-near/

 

 

 

 

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To Golf Or Not To Golf During COVID-1

http://pesticidetruths.com/2020/04/25/updates-on-the-chinese-wuhan-coronavirus-to-golf-or-not-to-golf-british-columbia-saskatchewan-new-york-michigan-trade-association-betrayals-sunshine-as-a-sanitizer-2019-04-0/



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CGSA’s COVID-19 Maintenance & Facility Guidelines    Corrected, Improved, & Modified Version

 

General :

 

 

SUPERINTENDENT    In the era of the Chinese ⁄ Wuhan Bat-Coronavirus, maintenance practices performed by superintendents must provide high-quality playing conditions and aesthetics, and must keep the golf courses safe from the spread of the virus.        Ledgeview   https://wp.me/p1jq40-dL3  

 

SICK EMPLOYEES    Staff should not come into work if they are feeling ill under any circumstances.      Manitoba    https://wp.me/p1jq40-dJx      USGA   https://wp.me/p1jq40-dL3     

 

HAND-WASHING    All staff are required to wash their hands immediately upon entering the maintenance building for a minimum of 20 seconds. 

 

SIGNS & PHYSICAL DISTANCING    Signage should be posted at entrances to the maintenance building reminding staff of physical distancing and to wash hands or use hand sanitizers upon entry. 

 

SCHEDULING    Staff should be scheduled to begin work at staggered times so that interaction is limited.      USGA   https://wp.me/p1jq40-dL3    

 

BUILDINGS    Staff are to minimize entering and exiting the maintenance building and/or locker room. 

 

BUILDING ENTRANCES    Consider having overhead doors and main doors of the maintenance building propped open prior to staff arrival and departure     eliminating the need to touch the door handles / openers. 

 

MEETINGS    Staff meetings should only be held if necessary and should be held in spaces that allow for proper physical distancing ( 6 feet or 2 metres from each other ).      USGA   https://wp.me/p1jq40-dL3    

 

CLUB HOUSE    Access is not permitted.       Manitoba   https://wp.me/p1jq40-dJx  

 

SIGNS & FACILITY CLOSURE    Signage at the course entrance or any adjacent properties that the golf course is closed to members and the public due to the Chinese ⁄ Wuhan Bat-Coronavirus pandemic, anyone who is found to be on property outside of essential maintenance work is subject to trespassing. 

 

 

 

 

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CGSA’s COVID-19 Maintenance & Facility Guidelines    Corrected, Improved, & Modified Version

 

On The Course :

 

 

GAME OF GOLF    In the era of the Chinese ⁄ Wuhan Bat-Coronavirus, golfers must be reassured that they are still playing the same game, and will be as rewarding, difficult, and frustrating as ever.      Cordova Bay   https://wp.me/p1jq40-dJ5  

 

PHYSICAL DISTANCING    Staff must have no physical contacts of any kind.  Staff must work independently as much as possible.  Maintain appropriate physical distance ( 2 metres ) between staff members and any golfers on the course.      Manitoba   https://wp.me/p1jq40-dJx      USGA   https://wp.me/p1jq40-dL3     

 

STAFF VEHICLES    Golf cars will have one employee per car    strictly enforced.  Each car will be equipped with disinfecting wipes or disinfectant solution.  Golf cars will be sanitized after each use.      Manitoba   https://wp.me/p1jq40-dJx      USGA   https://wp.me/p1jq40-dL3     

 

GLOVES    Staff are encouraged to wear gloves whenever possible. 

 

RADIOS    Communications should be done by radio or text messaging    if by radio it should be fully sanitized prior to and following use. 

 

WATER STATIONS    Remove and / or close all water filling stations. 

 

BATHROOMS    All course washrooms will be closed. 

 

 

 

 

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CGSA’s COVID-19 Maintenance & Facility Guidelines    Corrected, Improved, & Modified Version

 

Personnel ( Staff ) :

 

 

WIPES    Disinfecting wipes or spray should be provided in restroom and locker room facilities so that each staff member can clean the faucet, sink, toilet, etc …      USGA   https://wp.me/p1jq40-dL3    

 

PHYSICAL DISTANCING    If indoors, proper physical distancing should be employed ( 2 metres away from others ) and any location should be disinfected before and following use.      USGA   https://wp.me/p1jq40-dL3  

 

EATING    Staff are encouraged to eat in their vehicle or outside. 

 

BATHROOMS    Washrooms are to be cleaned throughout the day with disinfectant solution and staff must wear gloves doing so. 

 

STAFF ROOMS    Disinfecting wipes and disinfecting sprays should be provided in the lunch room or locker room to wipe down fridge handles, counter tops, and tables after touch.      USGA   https://wp.me/p1jq40-dL3    

 

LOCKERS    Personal items should be kept in staff vehicles and not in locker room(s). 

 

KITCHEN    No communal microwaves or coffee makers should be used, and dishes should be washed in hot water immediately following use    or consider using disposable plates and cutlery. 

 

WIPE-DOWN    Assign a staff member to wipe-down high traffic areas ( i.e. door handles, light switches, etc … ) periodically throughout the day.      USGA   https://wp.me/p1jq40-dL3    

 

LAUNDRY    Staff uniforms should be laundered prior to each shift. 

 

VISITORS    Visitors are allowed in the work-place.  They must maintain appropriate physical distance ( 2 metres ) with staff members and golfers. 

 

 

 

 

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CGSA’s COVID-19 Maintenance & Facility Guidelines    Corrected, Improved, & Modified Version

 

Accessories :

 

 

PUTTING CUPS    Putting green cups may not require modification to limit touch points since the Chinese ⁄ Wuhan Coronavirus will weaken more quickly when exposed to sunlight, heat, and humidity.  This means that the pandemic will become less contagious during the summer months.  It also means that golf courses will be the safest places to be in the era of the Chinese ⁄ Wuhan Bat-Coronavirus pandemic.  And, because sunlight is such a great sanitizer, golfers should not be afraid to touch flag poles and sand-trap rakes.  Golfers are safe on the golf course, although physical distancing may continue to be necessary.  Changes to the putting green cups must be decided in consultation with the golf course superintendent.       To Golf Or Not To Golf   https://wp.me/p1jq40-dMo      USGA   https://wp.me/p1jq40-dL3  

 

CUP UP    An alternate solution to flag pole and putting green cup touch-points is called the Cup Up.  If the ball touches the cup and comes to rest within 1 club length, it is considered in.      Cordova Bay    https://wp.me/p1jq40-dJ5  

 

ACCESSORIES    For everyone’s safety, accessories ⁄ fixtures will be removed from the course for the foreseeable future ( i.e. ball washers, bunker rakes, benches, towels, etc … ).  All flag poles will be sanitized daily.  All flag poles will be removed if the golf course is closed for play.       Manitoba   https://wp.me/p1jq40-dJx       Cordova Bay   https://wp.me/p1jq40-dJ5      USGA   https://wp.me/p1jq40-dL3  

 

DRIVING RANGE    Will not be open.       Manitoba   https://wp.me/p1jq40-dJx  

 

PRACTICE PUTTING GREEN    Will not be open.       Manitoba   https://wp.me/p1jq40-dJx  

 

 

 

 

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CGSA’s COVID-19 Maintenance & Facility Guidelines    Corrected, Improved, & Modified Version

 

Operations :

 

 

STAFF PROTECTION    Staff shall only use assigned personal protective equipment ( PPE ), whenever necessary. 

 

STAFF ACCESS    Only equipment technicians should be allowed in the area assigned for equipment maintenance. 

 

SHARING    Do not share equipment. 

 

TOOLS    All tools should be disinfected prior to and after use. 

 

FUEL STATIONS    Fueling stations should be sanitized prior to use and immediately after filling up. 

 

DELIVERIES    Deliveries are allowed to the work-place once existing inventories are deemed low.  There must be the appropriate physical distance ( 2 metres ) with staff members.  All delivered items must be disinfected prior to use. 

 

 

 

 

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CGSA’s COVID-19 Maintenance & Facility Guidelines    Corrected, Improved, & Modified Version

 

Essential Maintenance :

 

 

OPENING    An overwhelming number of superintendents support the opening of golf courses during the era of the Chinese ⁄ Wuhan Bat-Coronavirus pandemic, and they will remain ready to provide golfers with what they want    high-quality playing conditions & aesthetics, while keeping the property safe from the spread of the virus.       WCTA    https://wp.me/p1jq40-dMo  

 

RESPONSIBILITIES    Golf course superintendents must be allowed to perform essential property maintenance, even during any temporary closures, to be ready for the game to resume, while taking every health and safety precaution.      NAGA   https://wp.me/p1jq40-dJx  

 

BUDGET    In the era of the Chinese ⁄ Wuhan Bat-Coronavirus pandemic, significant cuts to the operating budget will lead to reductions and eliminations in various maintenance practices.      USGA    https://wp.me/p1jq40-dL3 

 

SUPERINTENDENT    All changes in maintenance practices must be decided in consultation with the golf course superintendent. 

 

MAINTENANCE    In order to follow through with some government mandated closures, golf courses are expected to only conduct essential maintenance. 

 

MOWING HEIGHTS OF CUT    With limited staff available for routine maintenance, mowing height of cut may need to be adjusted to save time.  Raising the height of cut on putting greens, tees, and fairways can extend the interval between mowing events.  For fine turf areas, it would be prudent to only raise the normal mowing height by 20 per cent to 30 per cent.  The maximum recommended heights of cut for key playing surfaces are approximately    Putting greens    0.187-inch    Fairways, approaches, & tees    0.750 to 1.00-inch.  Increasing in height of cut could extend the mowing interval for rough areas to 10 to 14 days.      USGA   https://wp.me/p1jq40-dL3  

 

MOWING FREQUENCY OF CUT    GREENS, TEES, & FAIRWAYS    With limited staff available for routine maintenance, mowing frequency may need to be adjusted to save time.  The USGA recommends greens be mowed a minimum of every three days and tees and fairways once a week.      USGA   https://wp.me/p1jq40-dL3  

 

MOWING FREQUENCY OF CUT    SURROUNDS    The green surrounds are the most important rough areas, while tee surrounds are typically the least important.  As a result, the mowing interval for these areas should be different.  A green surround should be mown every 7 to 10 days, while a tee surround could probably be mown every 14 days without causing playability issues.      USGA   https://wp.me/p1jq40-dL3  

 

MOWING FREQUENCY OF CUT    ROUGH    Bumping-up mowing heights can lessen the need to mow as frequently.  This is particularly effective for higher-cut turf like the rough.  Rough is generally the largest maintained turf area on a course, so these areas take the longest to mow.  Scaling-back rough mowing frequency is recommended, but not necessarily in all areas given the potential impact on play.  The primary rough around the fairways can be mown in the range of every 10 to 14 days to save labor resources.  Installing a graduated rough system, where the mower operator makes a few passes around the fairway more regularly    e.g., the area approximately 15 to 20 feet from the edge of the fairway    makes sense given the labor challenges many courses are facing.  The first cut of graduated rough could be mown every 7 to 10 days, while the rest of the rough could be mown on a longer interval, perhaps every 14 to 21 days depending upon the turf growth rate.      USGA   https://wp.me/p1jq40-dL3  

 

MOWING EQUIPMENT    Many golf courses throughout the country have already adopted the use of triplex mowers for maintaining greens and tees.  If you are one of the courses that still walk-mows these areas, now would be a good time to switch.  The same principle applies to fairways and roughs    these too should be mowed with the largest units available to maximize efficiency.      USGA   https://wp.me/p1jq40-dL3  

 

APPLICATIONS    Continue fertility and pest control applications to maintain the long-term health of the property. 

 

FUNGICIDES    A preventive fungicide program is recommended, especially if the golf course has a history of destructive diseases.

 

NITROGEN FERTILIZATION    Nitrogen fertility inputs should always match the recovery demands from traffic and the need to maintain a dense stand of turf.  If golfer traffic is significantly lower on your course, nitrogen inputs should be reduced proportionally.  On putting greens, reducing nitrogen inputs by 15 per cent to 25 per cent will help to carefully manage growth rates without significant concern of long-term impacts.  Fairways and rough are the largest maintained turfgrass areas on a course, so scaling back nitrogen inputs in these areas by 50 per cent or more will prove to be valuable because it will translate into a longer interval between time-consuming mowing events.  Monitoring the growth rate and clipping volume is always valuable, especially now as management inputs are geared toward reducing the need to mow turf.      USGA   https://wp.me/p1jq40-dL3  

 

SAND TRAPS    Minimize bunker maintenance to the lowest extent possible.      USGA   https://wp.me/p1jq40-dL3    

 

IRRIGATION    All irrigation adjusted remotely, if at all possible.

 

AERATION    Aeration maintenance must never be stopped.  For most turfgrass conditions that are subject to intensive player traffic, turf cultivation is necessary in either spring or fall, or both.  More specifically, on putting greens    core cultivation needs to be performed once for every 10,000 rounds of play.  Beyond 25,000 rounds, non–core cultivation methods, such as solid-tine, must be used in the overall turf cultivation program throughout the summer months.  Aeration-free maintenance will lead to disaster !      FONNORAHG   https://wp.me/p1jq40-d3Y      USGA   https://wp.me/p1jq40-dL3     

 

WINTER TURF MAINTENANCE    Courses that are under snow, should include snow removal on certain areas of the golf course, in consultation with the superintendent. 

 

WINTER TURF COVERS    Courses that use or require greens tarps or covers    these should be removed when appropriate, the timing of which should be done in consultation with the superintendent. 

 

ORNAMENTAL PLANTS    No edging and no trimming of plants or trees ( unless required for safety concerns ). 

 

GARDENS    Planting beds weeded bi-weekly, or as minimally as possible, to maintain plants.      USGA   https://wp.me/p1jq40-dL3    

 

 

 

 

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To Golf Or Not To Golf During COVID-19

http://pesticidetruths.com/2020/04/25/updates-on-the-chinese-wuhan-coronavirus-to-golf-or-not-to-golf-british-columbia-saskatchewan-new-york-michigan-trade-association-betrayals-sunshine-as-a-sanitizer-2019-04-0/




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Background Information

 

CGSA’s COVID-19 Maintenance
& Facility Guidelines

 

 

Notes On Corrections, Improvements, & Modifications

 

 

 

 

April 16th, 2020

 

Canadian Golf Superintendents Association ( CGSA )

 

Official Media Release

 

Re : The Chinese ⁄ Wuhan Bat-Coronavirus ( COVID-19 )

 

Selected, Corrected, Improved, And Modified Excerpts

 

Reference   

 

CGSA — COVID-19 Maintenance & Facility Guidelines

 

 

 

 

Notes On Corrections, Improvements, & Modifications

 

General

 

 

 

SUPERINTENDENT   In the era of the Chinese ⁄ Wuhan Bat-Coronavirus, maintenance practices performed by superintendents must provide high-quality playing conditions and aesthetics, and must keep the golf courses safe from the spread of the virus.   [ See commentary below. ]  

 

 

Commentary

 

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL STATEMENT    Ledgeview Golf & Country Club   https://wp.me/p1jq40-dL3  

 

 

CGSA Version

 

SICK EMPLOYEES    Staff should not come into work if they are feeling ill under any circumstances.  [ See commentary below. ] 

 

 

Commentary

 

PREFERRED & STRONGER STATEMENT   If you are sick, don’t come    you will not be permitted access to the golf facility.    Mr Jim Riopelle & Manitoba Superintendents    https://wp.me/p1jq40-dJx      USGA   https://wp.me/p1jq40-dL3  

  

 

 

CGSA Version

 

HAND-WASHING    All staff are required to wash their hands immediately upon entering the [ maintenance building ] for a minimum of 20 seconds. 

 

 

Commentary

 

SUGGESTED & MODIFIED STATEMENT 

 

 

CGSA Version

 

SIGNS & PHYSICAL DISTANCING    Signage should be posted at entrances to the [ maintenance building ] reminding staff of physical distancing and to wash hands or use hand sanitizers upon entry.      USGA   https://wp.me/p1jq40-dL3    

 

 

Commentary

 

SUGGESTED & MODIFIED STATEMENT 

 

 

CGSA Version

 

SCHEDULING    Staff should be scheduled to begin work at staggered times so that interaction is limited. 

 

 

CGSA Version

 

BUILDINGS    Staff are to minimize entering and exiting the maintenance building and/or locker room. 

 

 

CGSA Version

 

BUILDING ENTRANCES    Consider having overhead doors and main doors [ of the maintenance building ] propped open prior to staff arrival and departure     eliminating the need to touch the door handles / openers. 

 

 

Commentary

 

SUGGESTED & MODIFIED STATEMENT 

 

 

CGSA Version

 

MEETINGS    Staff meetings should only be held if necessary and should be held in spaces that allow for proper physical distancing ( 6 feet or 2 metres from each other ). 

 

 

CLUB HOUSE    Access is not permitted.  [ See commentary below. ]    

 

 

Commentary

 

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL STATEMENT    Mr Jim Riopelle & Manitoba Superintendents   https://wp.me/p1jq40-dJx  

 

 

CGSA Version

 

SIGNS & FACILITY CLOSURE    Signage at the course entrance or any adjacent properties that the golf course is closed to members and the public due to the COVID-19 pandemic, anyone who is found to be on property outside of essential maintenance work is subject to trespassing. 

 

 

 

 

Notes On Corrections, Improvements, & Modifications

 

On The Course

 

 

 

GAME OF GOLF    In the era of the Chinese ⁄ Wuhan Bat-Coronavirus, golfers must be reassured that they are still playing the same game, and will be as rewarding, difficult, and frustrating as ever.  [ See commentary below. ] 

 

 

Commentary

 

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL STATEMENTS    Cordova Bay   https://wp.me/p1jq40-dJ5  

 

 

 

CGSA Version

 

PHYSICAL DISTANCING    If course is open, maintain appropriate social distance ( 2 metres ) between staff members and any golfers on the course.  [ See commentary below. ] 

 

CGSA Version

 

INDEPENDENT WORK    Have staff work independently as much as possible, if able, have two staff members in one area so that there is eye contact between staff members if possible.  [ See commentary below. ] 

 

 

Commentary

 

PREFERRED & STRONGER STATEMENTS   Staff must have no physical contacts of any kind.  Staff must work independently as much as possible.  Maintain appropriate physical distance ( 2 metres ) between staff members and any golfers on the course.    Mr Jim Riopelle & Manitoba Superintendents   https://wp.me/p1jq40-dJx      USGA   https://wp.me/p1jq40-dL3     

 

 

 

CGSA Version

 

STAFF VEHICLES    Each staff member is provided with their own golf car or piece of equipment. 

 

CGSA Version

 

VEHICLES & DISINFECTANT    Assign one golf car and / or piece of equipment per person for the day, and each car should be equipped with disinfecting wipes or disinfectant solution that should be easily accessible. 

 

CGSA Version

 

SANITIZING VEHICLES    Sanitize high touch areas of the golf car / equipment, including high touch points ( i.e. steering wheel, gear shifter, ignition key, mower controls and switches ) before and after use.

 

 

Commentary

 

PREFERRED & STRONGER STATEMENTS   Golf cars will have one employee per car    strictly enforced.  Each car will be equipped with disinfecting wipes or disinfectant solution.  Golf cars will be sanitized after each use.     Mr Jim Riopelle & Manitoba Superintendents   https://wp.me/p1jq40-dJx      USGA   https://wp.me/p1jq40-dL3     

 

 

 

CGSA Version

 

GLOVES    Staff are encouraged to wear gloves whenever possible. 

 

 

CGSA Version

 

RADIOS    Communications should be done by radio or text messaging    if by radio it should be fully sanitized prior to and following use. 

 

 

CGSA Version

 

WATER STATIONS    Remove and/or close all water filling stations. 

 

 

CGSA Version

 

BATHROOMS    All course washrooms [ will be ] closed. 

 

 

Commentary

 

SUGGESTED & MODIFIED STATEMENT 

 

 

 

 

Notes On Corrections, Improvements, & Modifications

 

Personnel ( Staff )

 

 

 

CGSA Version

 

WIPES    Disinfecting wipes or spray should be provided in restroom and locker room facilities so that each staff member can clean the faucet, sink, toilet, etc … 

 

 

CGSA Version

 

PHYSICAL DISTANCING    If indoors, proper physical distancing should be employed ( 2 metres away from others ) and any location should be disinfected before and following use. 

 

 

CGSA Version

 

EATING    Staff are encouraged to eat in their vehicle or outside. 

 

 

CGSA Version

 

BATHROOMS    Washrooms are to be cleaned throughout the day with disinfectant solution and staff must wear gloves doing so. 

 

 

CGSA Version

 

STAFF ROOMS    Disinfecting wipes and disinfecting sprays should be provided in the lunch room or locker room to wipe down fridge handles, counter tops, and tables after touch. 

 

 

CGSA Version

 

LOCKERS    Personal items should be kept in staff vehicles and not in locker room(s). 

 

 

CGSA Version

 

KITCHEN    No communal microwaves or coffee makers should be used, and dishes should be washed in hot water immediately following use    or consider using disposable plates and cutlery. 

 

 

CGSA Version

 

WIPE-DOWN    Assign a staff member to wipe-down high traffic areas ( i.e. door handles, light switches, etc … ) periodically throughout the day. 

 

 

CGSA Version

 

LAUNDRY    Staff uniforms should be laundered prior to each shift. 

 

 

 

CGSA Version

 

VISITORS    No visitors allowed to the work-place.  [ ?!?! ] 

 

 

Commentary

 

PREFERRED & IMPROVED STATEMENTS   Visitors are allowed in the work-place.  They must maintain appropriate physical distance ( 2 metres ) with staff members and golfers.      USGA   https://wp.me/p1jq40-dL3    

 

 

 

 

Notes On Corrections, Improvements, & Modifications

 

Accessories

 

 

 

CGSA Version

 

PUTTING CUPS    If the golf course is open for play, alternative methods should be used to limit touch points in the cup    i.e. turning cup so that it is raised, using a pool noodle to raise the height.  [ ?!?! ]  [ See commentary below. ] 

 

 

Commentary

 

PREFERRED STRONGER STATEMENTS   Putting green cups may not require modification to limit touch points since the Chinese ⁄ Wuhan Coronavirus will weaken more quickly when exposed to sunlight, heat, and humidity.  This means that the pandemic will become less contagious during the summer months.  It also means that golf courses will be the safest places to be in the era of the Chinese ⁄ Wuhan Bat-Coronavirus pandemic.  And, because sunlight is such a great sanitizer, golfers should not be afraid to touch flagpoles and sand trap rakes.  Golfers are safe on the golf course, although physical distancing may continue to be necessary.  Changes to the putting green cups must be decided in consultation with the golf course superintendent.     To Golf Or Not To Golf   https://wp.me/p1jq40-dMo      USGA   https://wp.me/p1jq40-dL3  

 

 

 

CUP UP    An alternate solution to flag pole and putting green cup touch-points is called the Cup Up.  If the ball touches the cup and comes to rest within 1 club length, it is considered in.  [ See commentary below. ] 

 

 

Commentary

 

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL STATEMENTS    Cordova Bay   https://wp.me/p1jq40-dJ5  

 

 

 

CGSA Version

 

FLAG POLES    If the golf course is closed for play, all pin flags should be removed.  [ See commentary below. ] 

 

CGSA Version

 

ACCESSORIES    All ball washers and rakes should be removed from the course regardless if the course is open or not.  [ See commentary below. ] 

 

CGSA Version

 

ACCESSORIES    Remove benches, ball washers, and towels ( if course is open ).  [ See commentary below. ] 

 

CGSA Version

 

BENCHES    Consider removing the benches from the course to prevent congregation areas.  [ See commentary below. ] 

 

 

Commentary

 

PREFERRED & STRONGER STATEMENTS   For everyone’s safety, accessories ⁄ fixtures will be removed from the course for the foreseeable future ( i.e. ball washers, bunker rakes, benches, towels, etc … ).  All flag poles will  be sanitized daily.  All flag poles will be removed if the golf course is closed for play.      Mr Jim Riopelle & Manitoba Superintendents    https://wp.me/p1jq40-dJx      Cordova Bay   https://wp.me/p1jq40-dJ5      USGA   https://wp.me/p1jq40-dL3  

  

 

 

DRIVING RANGE    Will not be open.  [ See commentary below. ] 

 

PRACTICE PUTTING GREEN    Will not be open.  [ See commentary below. ] 

 

 

Commentary

 

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL STATEMENTS      Mr Jim Riopelle & Manitoba Superintendents   https://wp.me/p1jq40-dJx  

 

 

 

 

Notes On Corrections, Improvements, & Modifications

 

Operations

 

 

 

CGSA Version

 

STAFF PROTECTION    Staff shall only use assigned personal protective equipment ( PPE ) [ , whenever necessary. ]  [ See commentary below. ] 

 

 

Commentary

 

SUGGESTED & MODIFIED STATEMENT 

 

 

 

CGSA Version

 

STAFF ACCESS    Only equipment technicians should be [ allowed ] in the area assigned for equipment maintenance.  [ See commentary below. ] 

 

 

Commentary

 

SUGGESTED & MODIFIED STATEMENT 

 

 

 

CGSA Version

 

SHARING    Do not share equipment. 

 

 

CGSA Version

 

TOOLS    All tools should be disinfected prior to and after use. 

 

 

CGSA Version

 

FUEL STATIONS    Fueling stations should be sanitized prior to use and immediately after filling up. 

 

 

 

CGSA Version

 

INVENTORY    Use existing inventory before ordering and taking delivery of additional products.  [ ?!?! ]  [ See commentary below. ] 

 

 

CGSA Version

 

DELIVERIES    Limit deliveries to avoid contact with staff and delivery persons.  [ ?!?! ]  [ See commentary below. ] 

 

 

CGSA Version

 

DELIVERED PRODUCTS    Recommend that all deliveries be wrapped, and weather protected to sit outside for 4 days.  [ ?!?! ]  [ See commentary below. ] 

 

 

Commentary

 

PREFERRED & IMPROVED STATEMENTS   Deliveries are allowed to the work-place once existing inventories are deemed low.  There must be the appropriate physical distance ( 2 metres ) with staff members.  All delivered items must be disinfected prior to use.      USGA   https://wp.me/p1jq40-dL3  

 

 

 

 

Notes On Corrections, Improvements, & Modifications

 

Essential Maintenance

 

 

 

OPENING    An overwhelming number of superintendents support the opening of golf courses during the era of the Chinese ⁄ Wuhan Coronavirus pandemic, and they will remain ready to provide golfers with what they want    high-quality playing conditions & aesthetics, while keeping the property safe from the spread of the virus.  [ See commentary below. ] 

 

 

Commentary

 

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL STATEMENT     Western Canada Turfgrass Association   https://wp.me/p1jq40-dMo  

 

 

 

RESPONSIBILITIES    Golf course superintendents must be allowed to perform essential property maintenance, even during any temporary closures, to be ready for the game to resume, while taking every health and safety precaution.  [ See commentary below. ] 

 

 

Commentary

 

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL STATEMENT    NAGA   https://wp.me/p1jq40-dJx  

 

 

 

BUDGET    In the era of the Chinese ⁄ Wuhan Bat-Coronavirus pandemic, significant cuts to the operating budget will lead to reductions and eliminations in various maintenance practices.  [ See commentary below. ] 

 

 

Commentary

 

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL STATEMENT    USGA   https://wp.me/p1jq40-dL3

 

 

 

SUPERINTENDENT    All changes in maintenance practices must be decided in consultation with the golf course superintendent. 

 

 

Commentary

 

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL STATEMENT 

 

 

 

MAINTENANCE    In order to follow through with some government mandated closures, [ golf courses are expected to ] only conduct essential maintenance. 

 

 

Commentary

 

SUGGESTED & MODIFIED STATEMENT 

 

 

 

AERATION    Aeration maintenance must never be stopped.  For most turfgrass conditions that are subject to intensive player traffic, turf cultivation is necessary in either spring or fall, or both.  More specifically, on putting greens    core cultivation needs to be performed once for every 10,000 rounds of play.  Beyond 25,000 rounds, non–core cultivation methods, such as solid-tine, must be used in the overall turf cultivation program throughout the summer months.  Otherwise, expect declining and dead turf.  Aeration-free maintenance will lead to disaster !  

 

 

Commentary

 

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL STATEMENT    FONNORAHG   https://wp.me/p1jq40-d3Y      USGA   https://wp.me/p1jq40-dL3     

 

 

 

CGSA Version

 

APPLICATIONS    Continue fertility and [ pest control ] applications to maintain the long-term health of the property.  [ See later sections. ] 

 

 

Commentary

 

SUGGESTED & MODIFIED STATEMENT 

 

 

 

FUNGICIDES    A preventive fungicide program is recommended, especially if the golf course has a history of destructive diseases.

 

 

Commentary

 

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL STATEMENT 

 

 

 

CGSA Version

 

SAND TRAPS    Minimize bunker maintenance to the lowest extent possible. 

 

 

CGSA Version

 

IRRIGATION    All irrigation adjusted remotely, if at all possible.

 

 

CGSA Version

 

WINTER TURF MAINTENANCE    Courses that are under snow, should include snow removal on certain areas of the golf course, in consultation with the superintendent. 

 

 

CGSA Version

 

WINTER TURF COVERS    Courses that use or require greens tarps or covers    these should be removed when appropriate, the timing of which should be done in consultation with the superintendent. 

 

 

CGSA Version

 

ORNAMENTAL PLANTS    No edging and no trimming of plants or trees ( unless required for safety concerns ). 

 

 

CGSA Version

 

GARDENS    Planting beds weeded bi-weekly, or as minimally as possible, to maintain plants. 

 

 

 

 

Notes On Corrections, Improvements, & Modifications

 

Nitrogen Fertilization

 

 

 

CGSA Version

 

FERTILIZATION    Minimize uses of nitrogen fertilizer to slow growth ( use clipping yield / volume to predict nitrogen use and subsequent application ).  [ ?!?!?!?!?!?! ]  [ See commentary below. ] 

 

 

Commentary

 

PREFERRED & STRONGER STATEMENTS   Nitrogen fertility inputs should always match the recovery demands from traffic and the need to maintain a dense stand of turf.  If golfer traffic is significantly lower on your course, nitrogen inputs should be reduced proportionally.  On putting greens, reducing nitrogen inputs by 15 per cent to 25 per cent will help to carefully manage growth rates without significant concern of long-term impacts.  Fairways and rough are the largest maintained turfgrass areas on a course, so scaling back nitrogen inputs in these areas by 50 per cent or more will prove to be valuable because it will translate into a longer interval between time-consuming mowing events.  Monitoring the growth rate and clipping volume is always valuable, especially now as management inputs are geared toward reducing the need to mow turf.      USGA   https://wp.me/p1jq40-dL3  

 

 

 

 

Notes On Corrections, Improvements, & Modifications

 

Mowing Height Of Cut

 

 

 

CGSA Version

 

MOWING HEIGHTS    All mowing heights kept with 20 per cent of normal height of cut ( HOC ).  [ See commentary below. ] 

 

 

Commentary

 

PREFERRED & STRONGER STATEMENTS   

 

ADJUSTING THE MOWING HEIGHT OF CUT FOR REDUCED GOLF COURSE MAINTENANCE    With limited staff available for routine maintenance, mowing height of cut may need to be adjusted to save time.  Raising the height of cut on putting greens, tees, and fairways can extend the interval between mowing events.  For fine turf areas, it would be prudent to only raise the normal mowing height by 20 per cent to 30 per cent.  The maximum recommended heights of cut for key playing surfaces are approximately    Putting greens    0.187-inch    Fairways, approaches, & tees    0.750 to 1.00-inch.  Increasing in height of cut could extend the mowing interval for rough areas to 10 to 14 days.      USGA   https://wp.me/p1jq40-dL3  

 

 

 

 

Notes On Corrections, Improvements, & Modifications

 

Mowing Frequency Of Cut

 

 

 

CGSA Version

 

MOWING FREQUENCY    For those courses that have active growth, reduce mowing frequency to bare minimum standards.  [ See commentary below. ] 

 

Greens 2 – 3 times per week

Tees and Fairways 1 – 2 x per week

Rough as needed

 

 

Commentary

 

PREFERRED & STRONGER STATEMENTS   

 

INCREASING THE FREQUENCY OF CUT FOR REDUCED GOLF COURSE MAINTENANCE    With limited staff available for routine maintenance, mowing frequency may need to be adjusted to save time.  The USGA recommends greens be mowed a minimum of every three days and tees and fairways once a week. 

 

INCREASING THE FREQUENCY OF CUT FOR GREEN SURROUNDS    The green surrounds are the most important rough areas, while tee surrounds are typically the least important.  As a result, the mowing interval for these areas should be different.  A green surround should be mown every 7 to 10 days, while a tee surround could probably be mown every 14 days without causing playability issues.

 

INCREASING THE FREQUENCY OF CUT FOR ROUGH    Graduated Rough System    Bumping-up mowing heights can lessen the need to mow as frequently.  This is particularly effective for higher-cut turf like the rough.  Rough is generally the largest maintained turf area on a course, so these areas take the longest to mow.  Scaling-back rough mowing frequency is recommended, but not necessarily in all areas given the potential impact on play.  The primary rough around the fairways can be mown in the range of every 10 to 14 days to save labor resources.  Installing a graduated rough system, where the mower operator makes a few passes around the fairway more regularly    e.g., the area approximately 15 to 20 feet from the edge of the fairway    makes sense given the labor challenges many courses are facing.  The first cut of graduated rough could be mown every 7 to 10 days, while the rest of the rough could be mown on a longer interval, perhaps every 14 to 21 days depending upon the turf growth rate. 

 

   USGA    https://wp.me/p1jq40-dL3  

 

 

 

 

Notes On Corrections, Improvements, & Modifications

 

Mowing Equipment

 

 

 

MOWERS    Many golf courses throughout the country have already adopted the use of triplex mowers for maintaining greens and tees.  If you are one of the courses that still walk-mows these areas, now would be a good time to switch.  The same principle applies to fairways and roughs    these too should be mowed with the largest units available to maximize efficiency.  [ See commentary below. ] 

 

 

Commentary

 

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL STATEMENTS      USGA    https://wp.me/p1jq40-dL3  

 

 

 

 

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The Wisdom Of Drysdale

 

Reports, Blogs, & References

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/drysdale-library-of-reports-blogs-references/

 

 

 

The Wisdom Of Drysdale    Audio Recordings

 

Autumn to Miscellaneous

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/toc/the-wisdom-of-art-c-drysdale-3/

 

 

 

The Wisdom Of Drysdale    Audio Recordings

 

Orchids to Winter

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/toc/the-wisdom-of-art-c-drysdale-4/

 

 

 

The Wisdom Of Drysdale

 

Re-Direct Links

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/toc/the-wisdom-of-art-c-drysdale/

 

 

 

 

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About NORAHG

 

We Speak The Whole Truth

When We Take A Look At

GOLF COURSE MAINTENANCE

From An Independent Perspective

 

 

We are the National Organization Responding Against HUJE that conspire to destroy the Green space & other industries ( NORAHG ). 

 

NORAHG is a non-profit & independent organization that reports on the work of several highly-rated leading experts who have recognized expertise, training, & backgrounds in matters concerning pest control products, & who promote environmental realism & pesticide truths. 

 

NORAHG produces A Look At …on The Pesticide Truths Web-Site      http://pesticidetruths.com/  

 

It is a series of reports & blogs providing TECHNICAL INFORMATION on issues such as         Career Management      Golf Course Maintenance      Green Alternatives      History Of The Turfgrass Industry      Lawn Care Maintenance      Summer Stress      Tree & Shrub Maintenance      Turfgrass Pests      Turfgrass Species.

 

A Look At … is destined for the Green Space Industry, nation-wide across Canada, the United States, and beyond. 

 

A Look At … is committed to SOUND SCIENCE, as well as ground breaking original reporting that informs, entertains, & creates real change.

 

All information, excerpts, & pictures contained in A Look At … were retrieved from the Internet, & may be considered in the public domain. 

 

The information presented in A Look At … is for preliminary planning. 

 

Before making a final decision, the turf manager is expected to obtain trusted expert advice from extension specialists, local distributors and/or agronomists. 

 

All decisions must take into account the prevailing growing conditions, the time of year, & the established management practices. 

 

All products mentioned in A Look At … should be used in accordance with the manufacturer’s directions, & according to provincial, state, or federal law. 

 

For the official advantages, benefits, features, precautions, & restrictions concerning any product, the turf manager must rely only on the information furnished by the manufacturer. 

 

The mention of trade names does not constitute a guarantee or a warranty.

 

NORAHG also produces Force Of Nature, which dares to defy the pesticide-hating fanatжcs by exploring the whole truth from an independent perspective on The Pesticide Truths Web-Site      http://pesticidetruths.com/  

 

A Look At …, Force Of Nature, & their various incarnations, was the brain-child of William H Gathercole ( now retired ) & his colleagues. 

 

Here is a brief summary of Mr Gathercole’s career     

 

FIELDS OF UNIVERSITY STUDY         Crop, Horticulture, & Turfgrass Sciences      Mathematics & Physics

 

ALMA MATERS         McGill University      University of Guelph      the first person ever to obtain bachelors of science degrees & contribute directly to both the professional lawn care & golf maintenance industries. 

 

EXPERTISE         turf & ornamental maintenance & troubleshooting      history of the green space industry      sales & distribution of seeds, chemicals, fertilizers, & equipment      fertilizer manufacturing & distribution      environmental issues & anti-pesticide terrжrism. 

 

NOTABLE ACTIVITIES         worked in virtually all aspects of the green space industry, including golf maintenance, professional lawn care, tree & shrub care, distribution, environmental compliance, government negotiations, public affairs, & workplace safety      the supervisor, consultant, & programmer for the successful execution of hundreds-of-thousands of management operations in the golf course & urban landscape, as well as millions of pest control applications      the advisor, instructor, & trainer for thousands of turf & ornamental managers & technicians      the pesticide certification instructor for thousands of industry workers      a founder of the modern professional lawn care industry      the prolific writer for industry publications, reports, & blogs      the first to confirm the invasion of European Chafer insects in both the Montreal region & the Vancouver / Fraser Valley region      with Dr Peter Dernoeden, the first to confirm the presence of Take All Patch as a disease of turf in Eastern Canada      with Dr David Shetlar, the first to confirm the presence of Kentucky Bluegrass Scale as an insect pest in south-western Ontario, & later, in the Montreal & Vancouver regions. 

 

SPECIAL CONTRIBUTIONS         the creator of the Pesticide Ban Exception Status that allowed the golf industry to avoid being subjected to anti-pesticide prohibition for a generation      the creator of the signs that are now used for posting after application      the co-founder of annual winter convention for Quebec golf course superintendents      the founder of the first ever Turf Summit with featured guest-speaker Dr Jack L Eggens   https://wp.me/p1jq40-7dT      the major influence in the decision by Canadian Cancer Society to stop selling-for-profit fresh pesticide-treated daffodils   https://wp.me/P1jq40-1OW      the only true reliable witness of the events of anti-pesticide prohibition in the town of Hudson, Quebec   https://wp.me/p1jq40-asu      the founder ( now retired ) of A Look At … & Force Of Nature reports & blogs. 

 

NOTABLE AWARD         the first man-of-the-year for contributions leading to the successful founding of the Quebec professional lawn care trade association, which served as a beach-head against anti-pesticide activists in the 1980s & 1990s. 

 

LEGACIES      Mr Gathercole & his colleagues         designed & implemented strategies that reined anti-pesticide activists & provided peace & prosperity for the entire modern green space industry for a generation      orchestrated legal action against anti-pesticide activists in the town of Hudson, Quebec      launched the largest founding professional lawn care business in the nation      quadrupled the business revenues of one of the largest suppliers in the nation. 

 

Mr Gathercole is now retired, although his name continues to appear as the founder of A Look At … & Force Of Nature reports & blogs. 

 

We dare to defy by exploring the whole truth from an independent perspective on The Pesticide Truths Web-Site      http://pesticidetruths.com/  

 

We are the National Organization Responding Against HUJE that conspire to destroy the Green space and other industries ( NORAHG ). 

 

If you wish to receive free reports & blogs on issues that concern you, please contact us at      force.of.de.nature@gmail.com   WILLIAM H GATHERCOLE AND NORAH G  

 

 

 

 

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To Golf Or Not To Golf During COVID-19

http://pesticidetruths.com/2020/04/25/updates-on-the-chinese-wuhan-coronavirus-to-golf-or-not-to-golf-british-columbia-saskatchewan-new-york-michigan-trade-association-betrayals-sunshine-as-a-sanitizer-2019-04-0/

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