Winter Injury – Preparing Golf Course Turf For Winter – 2014 10 02

 

Winter Injury 1-1-0

 

 

 

 

Preparing Golf Course

 

Turf For Winter

 

 

Now Is The Time To Prepare

 

Golf Course Turfgrass For Surviving

 

The Upcoming Winter

 

 

 

 

October 2nd, 2014

 

Kevin Frank

 

Michigan State University Extension

 

Department Of Plant, Soil, And Microbial Sciences

 

Selected And Adapted Excerpts

 

 

 

 

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Preparing Golf Course Turf For Winter

 

Introduction

 

 

In the State of Michigan, WINTER 2013-2014 SHATTERED WEATHER RECORDS, and SHATTERED POA ANNUA PUTTING GREENS.

 

Ice cover that endured from early January through mid-March was a significant factor in causing WINTER-KILL, but there were certainly situations where CROWN HYDRATION FREEZE INJURY, or even DESICCATION INJURY on exposed sites, also caused damage.

 

With winter on the horizon, there is plenty of discussion on what to do now, and what to do during winter, to minimize the risk of WINTER-KILL.

 

 

 

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Preparing Golf Course Turf For Winter

 

Shade

 

 

Following last winter, it was clear that ANY TURF THAT WAS WEAK, or simply NOT AS HEALTHY, WAS EXPOSED AND KILLED.

 

In many instances, the WINTER-KILL PATTERNS MIRRORED SHADE PATTERNS on putting greens.  [ ?!?! ]

 

Turfgrass growing in the SHADE is simply NOT AS HEALTHY as turfgrass growing in FULL SUNLIGHT.

 

To compound the problem, trying to RE-ESTABLISH damaged putting greens in the SHADE resulted in LONGER RECOVERY TIME than putting greens recovering in FULL SUNLIGHT.

 

IMPROVING SUNLIGHT PENETRATION to putting greens by REMOVING OR THINNING TREE CANOPIES will improve turfgrass health, and, ultimately, may improve the odds of turfgrass surviving WINTER-KILL events.

 

 

 

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A Look At -- Winter Injury 1-0

 

 

 

 

 

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Preparing Golf Course Turf For Winter

 

Covers

 

 

COVERS ARE NOT WIDELY-USED throughout Michigan, especially South-East Michigan.

 

There are probably several reasons why COVERS ARE NOT WIDELY-USED, including cost, storage, lifespan, and unpredictable winter weather.

 

WINTER 2013-2014 was EXTREME with ice, snow. and cold temperatures.

 

WINTER 2012, if it is remembered at all, is remembered for the MILD TEMPERATURES that resulted in golf being played almost all winter long.

 

Keep in mind that all COVERS are not the same.

 

The PERMEABLE COVERS that were purchased by many golf courses this spring provided a TREMENDOUS ADVANTAGE in RE-ESTABLISHMENT, but will not provide absolute protection in the winter from thick ice cover.

 

PERMEABLE COVERS will certainly PROVIDE SOME BUFFER OR PROTECTION FROM LOW TEMPERATURES AND DESICCATION, and should be used if available, but if this winter delivers another dose of lengthy ice cover, PERMEABLE COVERS can’t be counted on to prevent damage.

 

IMPERMEABLE COVERS will PROTECT TURF FROM ICE COVER DAMAGE, but are not necessarily a panacea for all your winter worries.

 

IMPERMEABLE COVERS need to be TUCKED DOWN tightly to the surface to prevent any water from getting under the cover.

 

IMPERMEABLE COVERS will prevent gas exchange with the atmosphere, so in that respect they actually mirror thick ice sheets.  [ ?!?! ]

 

VENTING ( exchanging air under the cover ) IMPERMEABLE COVERS throughout winter reduces the risk of anoxia developing under the cover.  [ ?!?! ]

 

To use or to not use COVERS, especially IMPERMEABLE COVERS, can be a hotly debated topic.

 

Ultimately, the Golf Course Superintendent is the person that should make the decision.

 

After all, no person knows the golf course, the environment, and the turf better.

 

 

 

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A Look At -- Winter Injury 1-1

 

 

 

 

 

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Preparing Golf Course Turf For Winter

 

Snow Mold Diseases And Covers

 

 

It is important to remember that COVERS ACT SIMILAR TO SNOW COVER when it comes to Snow Mold Disease activity.

 

COVERS PROVIDE THE SAME ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF SNOW MOLD DISEASE AS THE SNOW DOES.

 

So, if COVERS are placed on putting greens in November and remain until March, they will create the same environmental conditions for the development Snow Mold Diseases.

 

Golf courses in Northern Michigan experience this disease situation when TURF IS COVERED BY SNOW FOR THREE OR MORE MONTHS.

 

It is important that ADEQUATE LEVELS OF FUNGICIDES be applied to protect turf for three or more months if COVERS will be used for this length of time.

 

This usually means applying THREE-WAY FUNGICIDE COMBINATIONS at full label rates.

 

MICRODOCHIUM PATCH ( a.k.a. Fusarium Patch ), one of the Snow Mold Diseases, WILL OCCUR THROUGHOUT THE FALL.

 

It is MOST ACTIVE when the temperatures are in the 60 degrees Fahrenheit range ( 16 to 21 degrees Celsius ), and combined with wet weather.

 

Therefore, it is important to PERFORM FUNGICIDE APPLICATIONS THROUGHOUT THE FALL to prevent MICRODOCHIUM PATCH from developing.

 

If MICRODOCHIUM PATCH is active at the time the COVERS are placed on the putting greens, it will continue to develop under the COVERS in spite of any fungicide applications.  [ ?!?! ]

 

 

 

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Preparing Golf Course Turf For Winter

 

Winter Snow And Ice Removal    To Remove Or Not To Remove ?

 

 

This question might make the COVER DEBATE seem tame.

 

Should you remove snow and ice and if so, when should you start ?

 

Last year was an anomaly with thick ice sheets that were in place for 90 days or greater in many areas.

 

Although some golf courses have been successful with removing snow throughout the winter, this may not be feasible for some courses due to either lack of personnel or snow moving equipment.

 

Instead of being concerned with removing snow from the first event to the last, consider developing A REMOVAL STRATEGY THAT TARGETS ICE DURATION AND SNOW-MELT that could lead to CROWN HYDRATION FREEZE INJURY.

 

For example, if ice forms and is in place for GREATER THAN 30 DAYS, Golf Course Superintendents should definitely make attempts to remove.

 

For CROWN HYDRATION FREEZE INJURY, Michigan State University Extension recommends to consider REMOVING SNOW IN LATE FEBRUARY/EARLY MARCH prior to anticipated SNOW-MELT.

 

 

 

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A Look At -- Winter Injury 1-2

 

 

 

 

 

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Preparing Golf Course Turf For Winter

 

Surface Drainage

 

 

The KEY to preventing, or reducing, the incidence of CROWN HYDRATION FREEZE INJURY is GOOD DRAINAGE.

 

FOR PUTTING GREENS THAT LACK ADEQUATE SURFACE DRAINAGE, consideration may even be given to RE-CONTOURING THOSE GREENS THAT ARE ANNUAL VICTIMS OF CROWN HYDRATION FREEZE INJURY.

 

Less dramatic measures include CUTTING CUP CUTTER-SIZED HOLES in poorly draining areas and FILLING THE CORES WITH GRAVEL OR SAND to try and move the water away from the surface.

 

Another more common tactic is to CUT SOD STRIPS TO FACILITATE WATER MOVEMENT OFF THE PUTTING GREENS ONCE SNOW-MELT BEGINS.

 

 

 

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A Look At -- Winter Injury 1-3

 

 

 

 

 

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Preparing Golf Course Turf For Winter

 

Cultural Practices    Let It Grow !

 

 

Fall is prime time for cultural practices to improve turfgrass health.

 

In addition to CORE AERATION and FALL FERTILIZATION, consideration should be given to RAISE MOWING HEIGHTS AS FALL PROGRESSES.

 

Higher mowing heights will NOT save the turf alone if WINTER-KILL is again an issue, but it could certainly be a factor in producing a healthier plant and, if you think back, how many putting greens had WINTER-KILL, but the collar had NO damage?

 

Granted, the putting greens are NOT going to look like collars going into winter, but maybe even a slight increase in height might help.

 

 

 

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A Look At -- Winter Injury

 

 

 

 

 

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Take A LOOK AT Career Management, Golf Course Maintenance, Green Alternatives, Lawn Care Maintenance, Summer Stress, Tree & Shrub Maintenance, Turfgrass Pests, and Turfgrass Species

 

 

NORAHG is National Organization Responding Against HUJE that seek to harm the Green Space Industry.

 

NORAHG is a NATIONAL NON PROFIT NON PARTISAN organization dedicated to reporting the work of RESPECTED and HIGHLY RATED EXPERTS who promote PESTICIDE REALISM and PESTICIDE TRUTHS.

 

Scientific research PROVES that pest control products cause NO HARM and can be USED SAFELY.

 

NORAHG produces A LOOK AT, a series of reports providing TECHNICAL INFORMATION on issues such as Career Management, Golf Course Maintenance, Green Alternatives, Lawn Care Maintenance, Summer Stress, Tree & Shrub Maintenance, Turfgrass Pests, and Turfgrass Species.

 

A LOOK AT is destined for the green space industry, nationwide across Canada, the United States, and overseas.

 

A LOOK AT is committed to SOUND SCIENCE, as well as ground breaking original reporting that informs, entertains, and creates real change.

 

All information, excerpts, and pictures contained in A LOOK AT were retrieved from the Internet, and may be considered in the public domain. 

 

The information presented in A LOOK AT is for preliminary planning only. 

 

Before making a final decision, the turf manager is expected to obtain trusted expert advice from extension specialists, local distributors and/or agronomists. 

 

All decisions must take into account the prevailing growing conditions, the time of year, and the established management practices. 

 

All products mentioned in A LOOK AT should be used in accordance with the manufacturer’s directions, and according to provincial, state, or federal law. 

 

For the official advantages, benefits, features, precautions, and restrictions concerning any product, the turf manager must rely only on the information furnished by the manufacturer. 

 

The mention of trade names does not constitute a guarantee or a warranty.

 

NORAHG also produces FORCE OF NATURE, reports that present THE WHOLE TRUTH FROM AN INDEPENDENT PERSPECTIVE about environmental issues, including anti pesticide terrorism.

 

NORAHG provides a SPOTLIGHT OF SCRUTINY against lunatics who have RECKLESSLY HARMED and DESTROYED and RAPED businesses by CONSPIRING TO ARBITRARILY IMPOSE PROHIBITIONS against pest control products used in the Urban Landscape, and by CONSPIRING in other ACTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL TERRORISM.

 

NORAHG manages the Library Computer Access and Retrieval System ( LCARS ) for all ANTI PESTICIDE TERRORIST ACTS OF SUBVERSION. 

 

The NORAHG LCARS is a VAST ARCHIVE of DOCUMENTS, AUDIO CLIPS, and VIDEOS on ALL ACTS OF ANTI-PESTICIDE SUBVERSION  ―  it has been made AVAILABLE to anyone interested in COMPLAINTS and LITIGATION.

 

The NORAHG LCARS contains names, statements, activities, and affiliations of ALL ANTI-PESTICIDE VERMIN, including government officials.

 

The NORAHG LCARS also contains information concerning INTERFERENCE WITH PARTISAN POLITICS, and VIOLATIONS OF TAXATION AND ELECTION LAWS by anti-pesticide and environmental-terrorist organizations that DO NOT DESERVE ANY CHARITY TAX-EXEMPT STATUS.

 

A LOOK AT, FORCE OF NATURE, and their various incarnations, was the brainchild of Mr William H Gathercole (now retired) and his colleagues. 

 

Here is a brief summary of Mr Gathercole’s career  ―

 

Fields of study   ―   Horticulture/Agriculture, Mathematics, Physics

 

Alma mater   ―   McGill University   •   University of Guelph   •   the first person ever to obtain university degrees and contribute to both the professional lawn care and golf maintenance industries

 

Expertise in   ―   environmental issues and anti pesticide terrorism   •   turf and ornamental maintenance and troubleshooting   •   history of the industry   •   sales and distribution of seeds, chemicals, fertilizers, and equipment   •   fertilizer manufacturing and distribution 

 

Notable activities   ―   worked in virtually all aspects of the green space industry, including golf, professional lawn care, tree & shrub care, distribution, environmental compliance, government negotiations, public affairs, and workplace safety   •   supervisor, consultant, and, programmer for the successful execution of hundreds of thousands of management operations in the golf and urban landscape, as well as millions of pest control applications    •   advisor, instructor, and trainer for  thousands of turf and ornamental managers and technicians   •   pesticide certification instructor for thousands of industry workers   •   founder of the modern professional lawn care industry   •   prolific writer for industry publications and e-newsletters   •   first to confirm the invasion of European Chafer insect in both the Montreal region and the Vancouver / Fraser Valley region   •   with Dr Peter Dernoeden, confirmed the presence of Take All Patch as a disease of turf in Eastern Canada   •   with Dr David Shetlar, confirmed the presence of Kentucky Bluegrass Scale as an insect pest in South Western Ontario, and later, in the Montreal and Vancouver regions   

 

Special contributions   ―   creator of the exception status that has allowed the golf industry to avoid being subjected to anti pesticide prohibition   •   creator of the signs that are now used for posting after application   •   co-founder of annual winter convention for Quebec golf course superintendents   •   the major influence in the decision by Canadian Cancer Society to stop selling for profit pesticide treated daffodils   •   the only true reliable witness of the events of anti pesticide prohibition in the town of Hudson, Quebec   •   retired founder of A LOOK AT and FORCE OF NATURE reports

 

Notable award   ―   the very first man of the year for contributions leading to the successful founding of Quebec professional lawn care industry, which served as a beach-head against anti pesticide activists in the 1980s and 1990s

 

Legacy   ―   Mr Gathercole and his colleagues   …   designed and implemented strategies that reined anti pesticide activists to provide peace and prosperity for the entire modern green space industry across Canada   •   orchestrated legal action against anti pesticide activists in the town of Hudson, Quebec   •   launched the largest founding professional lawn care business in Canada   •   quadrupled the business revenues of one of the largest suppliers in Canada

 

Mr Gathercole is now retired, although his name continues to appear as founder of A LOOK AT and FORCE OF NATURE reports.

 

For The Complete Library of reports from A LOOK AT, FORCE OF NATURE, NORAHG, PESTICIDE TRUTHS, and UNCLE ADOLPH, go to the following archives  …

 

A LOOK AT    CAREER MANAGEMENT ( Web-Page )

 

A LOOK AT    SLIDE SHOWS    TURF, ORNAMENTALS, MAINTENANCE, & ENVIRONMENT ( Web-Page )

 

A LOOK AT    REFERENCES & SLIDE SHOWS    TURF, ORNAMENTALS, MAINTENANCE, & ENVIRONMENT ( Web-Page )

 

A LOOK AT    REPORTS    TURF, ORNAMENTALS, & MAINTENANCE ( Web-Page )

 

See also  …

 

ABOUT UNCLE ADOLPH

 

FORCE OF NATURE WEB-PAGES

 

UNCLE ADOLPH ON YOUTUBE    VIDEO LIBRARY

 

UNCLE ADOLPH’S ORIGINAL PESTICIDE TRUTHS BLOG

 

UNCLE ADOLPH ON SCRIBD    OFFICIAL DOCUMENTS

 

NORAHG FON ON FACEBOOK    NORAHG RESPONSES

 

THE PESTICIDE TRUTHS WEB-SITE    ARCHIVE OF REPORTS

 

PESTICIDE LINKS    PESTICIDE QUESTIONS ANSWERED BY HEALTH CANADA

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS    THE COMPLETE LIBRARY OF WEB-PAGES, REPORTS, & REFERENCES

 

THE WISDOM OF DRYSDALE, ART C.    RE-DIRECT LINKS TO REPORTS AND AUDIO RECORDINGS ( Web-Page )

 

 

 

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Winter Injury 1-1-2

 

 

 

 

 

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Background Information From An Independent Perspective

 

The Whole Truth Can Be Found    On The Pesticide Truths Web-Site 

 

 

THE PESTICIDE TRUTHS WEB-SITE    ARCHIVE OF REPORTS ( Home Page )

 

 

PESTICIDE BANS ARE A FARCE ( Report )

 

 

FIESTA CANNOT BE USED TO VALIDATE ANTI-PESTICIDE PROHIBITION ( Report )

 

 

BEE-KEEPERS ARE KILLING BEES, AND NOT INSECTICIDES ( Web-Page )

 

 

REAL TRENDS AGAINST PESTICIDE BANS ( Web-Page )

 

 

ENEMIES LIST IN THE 9|11 ERA OF ANTI-PESTICIDE TERRORISM ( Report )

 

 

CARNAGE CREATED BY CATASTROPHIC ANTI-PESTICIDE PROHIBITION ( Main Web-Page )

 

 

THE EXORBITANT COST OF PESTICIDE BANS ( Report )

 

 

ATTACKS AGAINST GOLF FACILITIES ( Report )

 

 

MYTHS ABOUT BANNING PESTICIDES    LEADING SCIENTIFIC HEALTH AND POLICY EXPERTS ( White Paper )

 

 

2,4-D HERBICIDE ( Web-Page )

 

 

COMPLAINT CHANNELS    COMPLAIN ABOUT THE ANTI-PESTICIDE LUNATICS ( Web-Page )

 

 

 

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Winter Injury 1-1-3

 

 

 

 

 

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