Winter Injury – Are My Greens Still Alive ? – How To Prevent Future Winter Injury – 2019 03 00

――――――――――――――――――――

 

 

 

 

March 2019

 

Jacklin Seed Research Newsletter

 

Selected And Adapted Excerpts

 

References   

 

Reference — Jacklin Newsletter — 2019 03 00 — Winter Injury — Are My Greens Still Alive

Reference — Jacklin Newsletter — 2014 — Vol. 17 — Issue 1 — Winter Injury — Are My Greens Still Alive

 

 

 

 

――――――――――――――――――――

 

 

 

With the winter conditions that have occurred during the past few months, winter kill is a topic on most of our minds. 

 

Questions arise like   

 

 

Did I put my greens to bed correctly ? 

 

What is the « right » way to prepare my greens ? 

 

 

If creeping bentgrass is your dominant species, you « should » be okay. 

 

But scientists DO NOT have all the answers when it comes to what is causing winter kill on putting greens. 

 

What they do know about winter injury  

 

[ See the next segment. ] 

 

 

 

――――――――――――――――――――

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

――――――――――――――――――――

 

 

 

A Look At    Winter Injury    Are My Greens Still Alive ?

 

Ice Cover

 

 

Annual bluegrass can SURVIVE for approximately 45 DAYS encased in ice, while creeping bentgrass can SURVIVE up to 150 DAYS in ice.  [ See link below ] 

 

The PRIMARY CAUSE OF DEATH with prolonged ice cover is ANOXIA or oxygen starvation. 

 

While the plants are dormant, the crowns are still respiring at low rates, just like a bear hibernating in its cave. 

 

The ice acts as a barrier preventing fresh air from reaching the crown, and causing a build-up of carbon dioxide which becomes TOXIC to the plant. 

 

Annual bluegrass is MORE SUSCEPTIBLE TO ANOXIC CONDITIONS because it does not harden-off to the same extent as creeping bentgrass. 

 

Creeping bentgrass expels more water from the crown during the fall, which concentrates the sugars in the crown. 

 

These sugars residing in the crown act as anti-freeze and prevent freezing damage to the crown, which is why creeping bentgrass can TOLERATE much colder temperatures than annual bluegrass. 

 

 

 

Explore the following link    

 

 

Effects Of Ice Cover On Annual Bluegrass & Creeping Bentgrass Putting Greens — Tompkins, Ross, et al

 

 

 

――――――――――――――――――――

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

――――――――――――――――――――

 

 

 

A Look At    Winter Injury    Are My Greens Still Alive ?

 

Winter Diseases

 

 

Winter diseases can be kept under control due to RELIABLE PREVENTIVE FUNGICIDES that are on the market today. 

 

Does the protection last through the winter ? 

 

Typically, you are confident on the timing of your PREVENTIVE [ FUNGICIDE ] APPLICATIONS most greens will come out of winter with MINIMAL DAMAGE. 

 

 

 

Explore the following link    

 

 

CGSA Falsely Alleged That Repeat Applications Of Alternatives To Quintozene Would Be Required — Primo

 

 

 

――――――――――――――――――――

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

――――――――――――――――――――

 

 

 

A Look At    Winter Injury    Are My Greens Still Alive ?

 

Direct Low-Temperature Kill

 

 

Research out of the Prairie Turfgrass Research Centre in Alberta, Canada, and most recently from University of Massachusetts, shows that   

 

   annual bluegrass hits a lethal temperature with 50 per cent death ( LT50 ) at approximately 0°F ( -17.7°C )

 

   creeping bentgrass has an LT50 between -6°F and -16°F ( -21°C to -27°C ) 

 

[ See link below. ]

 

Long-term ice increases annual bluegrass sensitivity to lethal temperatures, but the effect is LESS on creeping bentgrass. 

 

 

 

Explore the following link    

 

 

Examination Of Cold Deacclimation Sensitivity Of Annual Bluegrass & Creeping Bentgrass — Hoffman et al

 

 

 

――――――――――――――――――――

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

――――――――――――――――――――

 

 

 

A Look At    Winter Injury    Are My Greens Still Alive ?

 

Early Crown Hydration

 

 

Early crown hydration is often considered the PRIMARY CAUSE of most winter injury/kill. 

 

This occurs during later winter or early spring when the temperatures start rising and the crowns begin to uptake water. 

 

This is a critical time for turfgrass survival, because, during this de-hardening process, the lethal temperature rises closer to the freezing point.  [ See link below. ] 

 

If you have removed the snow/ice and/or winter covers, CONSIDER SPRING TARPS to help buffer the crowns from extreme dips in temperature. 

 

 

 

Explore the following link    

 

 

Dehardening Of Annual Bluegrass & Creeping Bentgrass During Late Winter & Early Spring — Tompkins et al

 

 

 

――――――――――――――――――――

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

――――――――――――――――――――

 

 

 

A Look At    Winter Injury    Are My Greens Still Alive ?

 

Desiccation

 

 

Desiccation is prominent on exposed greens under direct sunlight. 

 

The plants expel water during the hardening process, but they are still respiring at low levels during dormancy. 

 

A primary ingredient in respiration is water, so if the crowns become too dry you may see winter kill from desiccation. 

 

Dave Minner at Iowa State performed a survey of golf courses in the early to mid-2000s. 

 

He found a consistent season-long COVER OF SNOW was best to prevent desiccation. 

 

Also effective were TARPS, followed by winter WATERING, and HEAVY TOPDRESSING in the fall. 

 

 

 

――――――――――――――――――――

 

 

 

A Look At    Winter Injury    Are My Greens Still Alive ?

 

Winter Traffic

 

 

Winter traffic, whether caused by play, skiers, or animals, is harmful to turfgrasses. 

 

Dave Minner at Iowa State found, during the two winters of 2001-2003, courses that allowed winter play tended to have severe injury in a 10-foot circle surrounding the pin.  [ See link below. ] 

 

 

 

Explore the following link    

 

 

Winter Injury On Putting Greens — Minner — Iowa State U — HIGHLIGHTED

 

 

 

――――――――――――――――――――

――――――――――――――――――――

 

 

 

A Look At    Winter Injury    How To Prevent Future Winter Injury

 

Maximize Autumn Growth

 

 

Fall is the time to be optimizing turf health. 

 

During the fall we have two things going on    recovery from summer stress and storage for the winter dormancy period. 

 

If the fall is droughty and hot, be sure to irrigate and relieve heat stress as much as possible because excessive stress in the fall will reduce the crown’s ability to acclimate during the hardening off process. 

 

Be sure to implement a good fertility program that is well-balanced and promotes turfgrass growth. 

 

For example, Greens King 18-2-24 [ Simplot fertilizer ] with micro-nutrients supplies a steady flow of nitrogen while promoting turfgrass recovery. 

 

 

 

Explore the following links    

 

 

Greens King 18-2-24 Micro With Nutralene — LABEL DIRECTIONS

 

Greens King 18-2-24 Micro With Nutralene — SAFETY DATA SHEETS

 

 

 

――――――――――――――――――――

 

 

 

A Look At    Winter Injury    How To Prevent Future Winter Injury

 

Locate Problem Spots    Interseeding

 

 

Interseeding with newer generation bentgrasses will increase the winter hardiness of your greens, however no plant can survive under compacted, water-logged conditions. 

 

Areas on your greens that have a tendency to pool water may require a complete renovation to  provide better growing conditions for your turf. 

 

Interseeding each spring will promote temporary turf cover, but long-term it would be better to consider reconstruction. 

 

 

 

Explore the following links   

 

 

Summer Tall Fescue Interseeding

 

Interseeding Bentgrass Into Annual Bluegrass

 

Interseeding With T-1 & Alpha

 

Crowding Out Poa ( Interseeding )

 

Mowing During Interseeding

 

T-1 & Alpha Interseeding

 

 

 

――――――――――――――――――――

 

 

 

Look at the following video  … 

 

 

Interseeding Techniques For T-1 & Alpha Creeping Bentgrasses -- Video Recording -- 07 Minutes 49 Seconds

 

 

 

 

 

 

――――――――――――――――――――

 

 

 

A Look At    Winter Injury    How To Prevent Future Winter Injury

 

Consider Winter Covers

 

 

On greens that are exposed for most of the winter, covers will decrease the chances of winter desiccation of the turf. 

 

The key to covers is to put them on as late as possible in the fall, when the plants are dormant. 

 

 

 

Explore the following link   

 

 

Selection & Use Of Protective Turf Covers

 

 

 

――――――――――――――――――――

 

 

 

A Look At    Winter Injury    How To Prevent Future Winter Injury

 

Injury Repair Tips    Varieties

 

 

Choose a new generation bentgrass that has fast germination and an aggressive growth habit to rapidly fill-in your dead spots. 

 

Jacklin® Seed bentgrass varieties, like T-1, V8, and L-93 XD, have a fast germination rate and a good fill-in rate. 

 

 

 

Explore the following links   

 

 

Creeping Bentgrass — L-93 XD — Jacklin — 2018 — 1

 

Creeping Bentgrass — L-93 XD — Jacklin — 2018 — 2

 

Creeping Bentgrass — T-1 — Head Turning Genetic Color — 2018

 

Creeping Bentgrass — T-1 — Interseeding — 2006

 

Creeping Bentgrass — V8 — Jacklin — 2018 — 1

 

Creeping Bentgrass — V8 — Jacklin — 2018 — 2

 

 

 

――――――――――――――――――――

 

 

 

A Look At    Winter Injury    How To Prevent Future Winter Injury

 

Injury Repair Tips    Seeding

 

 

Seeding method will affect the visual aesthetics and playability of the green at first. 

 

If you do not have access to a slit-seeder your best option would be to aggressively verti-cut the area ( preferably in two directions ) followed by broadcast seeding. 

 

Finally, lightly cover the area with topdressing sand.  [ ?!?! ] 

 

This will ensure seed-to-soil contact and a greater establishment rate.  [ ?!?! ] 

 

Core aeration interseeding is another viable option. 

 

For more uniform results break up the cores, broadcast the seed, topdress, and finish by matting. 

 

Another tip is to space the tines close together to avoid large spaces between the holes. 

 

This will give a more uniform coverage of seed.

 

 

 

Explore the following links   

 

 

Factors Contributing To Faster Germination In Creeping Bentgrass — Jacklin Seed

 

How Long Grass Will Take To Germinate In The Spring — Jacklin Seed

 

How Much Nitrogen Do Golf Grasses Need — Jacklin Seed

 

 

 

――――――――――――――――――――

――――――――――――――――――――

 

 

 

 

For more information, explore the following links   

 

 

 

Preparing Golf Course Turfgrasses
For Surviving The Upcoming Winter

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/2016/11/17/winter-injury-preparing-golf-course-turfgrasses-for-winter-series-of-reports-sponsored-by-pbi-gordon-2016-10-11-00-a-look-at-everything-that-you-need-to-know-about-this-destructive/

 

 

 

Preparing Golf Course Turf For Winter

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/2014/10/05/winter-injury-preparing-golf-course-turf-for-winter-2014-10-02/

 

 

 

 

Also explore the following links   

 

 

 

The Complete Library Of Jacklin Seed

Research Newsletters, Videos, & Varieties

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/toc/a-look-at-references-seed-jacklin-newsletter/

 –

 –

 –

Turfgrass Diseases & Disorders

Including Winter Injury

 

The Complete Media Library Of References

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/toc/a-look-at-references-turf-diseases/


Kentucky Bluegrass Varieties

Snow Mold Resistance Ratings

 

Force Of Nature — A Look At — Kentucky Bluegrass — Varieties — Snow Mold Resistance Ratings

――――――――――――――――――――

――――――――――――――――――――

 

 

 

 

Explore the following links   

 

 

 

A Look At …

 

Libraries

 

 

 

CAREER MANAGEMENT

 

The Media Library Of Reports

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/toc/a-look-at-career-management/

 

 

 

HISTORY OF THE TURFGRASS INDUSTRY

 

The Media Library Of References

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/the-history-of-the-turfgrass-industry/

 

 

 

JACKLIN SEED

 

The Complete Library Of Research
Newsletters, Videos, & Varieties

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/toc/a-look-at-references-seed-jacklin-newsletter/

 

 

 

PESTICIDE LABELS

 

The Complete Library Of Documents

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/toc/labels/

 

 

 

PESTICIDE RE-ENTRY INTERVALS

 

Label Statements For Applications On Turfgrasses

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/2017/10/23/update-re-entry-intervals-label-statements-for-applications-on-turfgrasses-2017-10-23/

 

 

 

REFERENCES

 

The Complete Library On Turf, Ornamentals,
Maintenance, & Environment

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/toc/a-look-at-references-turf-ornamentals/

 

 

 

REPORTS

 

The Complete Library On Turf, Ornamentals,
Maintenance, & Environment

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/toc/a-look-at-reports/

 

 

 

SLIDE SHOWS

 

The Complete Library On Turf, Ornamentals,
Maintenance, & Environment

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/toc/a-look-at-slide-shows/

 

 

 

TURFGRASS DISEASES & DISORDERS

 

The Complete Media Library Of References

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/toc/a-look-at-references-turf-diseases/

 

 

 

TURFGRASS WEED PESTS

 

The Complete Media Library Of

Dow AgroSciences Newsletters

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/toc/a-look-at-references-weed-watch-dow-agrosciences/

 

 

 

 

Further explore the following links   

 

 

 

Also Look At …

 

Positive Waves

 

 

 

POSITIVE WAVES FOR SOCIETY

 

The Media Library

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/toc/positive-waves-library/

 

 

 

BENEFITS OF TURFGRASSES

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/toc/positive-waves-benefits/

 

 

 

PLANET’S GREAT CONSERVATIONISTS

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/toc/positive-waves/

 

 

 

 

Continue to explore the following links   

 

 

 

Also Look At …

 

Posters

 

 

 

BENEFITS OF URBAN TREES

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/2017/10/15/poster-benefits-of-urban-trees-2017-10-00/

 

 

 

COMMUNITY BENEFITS OF GOLF

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/2017/06/14/posters-community-benefits-of-golf-striking-back-against-pesticide-bans-croplife-canada-2017-00-00/

 

 

 

ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS OF TURFGRASS

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/2015/08/21/the-environmental-benefits-of-turfgrass-new-poster-striking-back-against-pesticide

 

 

 

KEEP OUR COMMUNITIES BEAUTIFUL & SAFE
DO NOT BAN PESTICIDES

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/2012/10/30/posters-there-are-real-trends-against-pesticide-bans-keep-our-communities-beautiful-safe-do-not-ban-cosmetic-pesticides-2012-10-30/

 

 

 

CANADA’S PROMINENT ANTI-PESTICIDE TERRЖRISTS

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/toc/culprits-canadas-prominent-anti-pesticide-terrorists/

 

 

 

 

Explore more of the following links   

 

 

 

Also Look At …

 

More Slide Shows

 

 

 

SAFETY & ENVIRONMENT FACTS
PEST CONTROL PRODUCTS ARE SAFE FOR KIDS

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/2016/08/30/a-look-at-safety-environment-facts-pest-control-products-are-safe-for-kids-slide-show-2016-08-31/

 

 

 

IMIDACLOPRID POLLINATOR ASSESSMENT

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/2016/02/09/health-canada-pest-management-regulatory-agency-pmra-update-imidacloprid-preliminary-pollinator-assessment-with-overall-conclusions-laura-feeny-regional-pesticide-officer/

 

 

 

LIBRARY OF PRESENTATIONS — Part 1

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/2016/03/01/a-look-at-slide-shows-the-complete-library-of-slide-shows-2016-2016-03-01/

 

 

 

LIBRARY OF PRESENTATIONS — Part 2

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/2016/04/04/a-look-at-the-complete-library-of-slide-shows-2016-part-2-of-3/

 

 

 

 

Explore even more of the following links   

 

 

 

Also Look At …

 

The Wisdom Of
Mr Art C Drysdale

 

 

 

PROFILE & REPORTS

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/toc/the-wisdom-of-art-c-drysdale-2/

 

 

 

REPORTS, BLOGS, & REFERENCES

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/drysdale-library-of-reports-blogs-references/

 

 

 

AUDIO RECORDINGS — AUTUMN to MISCELLANEOUS

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/toc/the-wisdom-of-art-c-drysdale-3/

 

 

 

AUDIO RECORDINGS — ORCHIDS to WINTER

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/toc/the-wisdom-of-art-c-drysdale-4/

 

 

 

RE-DIRECT LINKS

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/toc/the-wisdom-of-art-c-drysdale/

 

 

 

 

Explore even more links   

 

 

 

A Look At …

 

Lunatжc Slide Shows

 

 

 

TONY DIGIOVANNIDIRECTOR OF FUNERAL
SERVICES AT LANDS-CAPE ONTARIO

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/Force-Of-Nature-LIAR-DiGiovanni-2010-12-31-Lying-Sack-of-Cwap-LandsCAPE-Ontario-pdf-300-dpi.pdf

 

 

 

GIDEON FORMAN — LIES & MIS-INFORMATION

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/toc/forman-slide-show/

 

 

 

GIDEON FORMAN — HOW THE
PESTICIDE BAN WAS WON IN ONTARIO

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/Force-Of-Nature-Culprit-Forman-2009-06-11-Slide-Show-How-the-pesticide-ban-was-won-pdf-150-dpi.pdf

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/toc/forman-slide-show/

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/Slide-Show-CAPE-Winning-the-Ontario-Pesticide-Ban-Gideon-Forman-Lunatic-Presentation-2009-00-00.pdf

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/Slide-Show-CAPE-Winning-the-Ontario-Pesticide-Ban-Gideon-Forman-Lunatic-Presentation-2009-00-00.pptx

 

 

 

 

――――――――――――――――――――

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

――――――――――――――――――――

 

 

 

WE SPEAK THE WHOLE TRUTH WHEN WE TAKE A LOOK AT    WINTER INJURY    FROM AN INDEPENDENT PERSPECTIVE ! 

 

 

We are the National Organization Responding Against HUJE that conspire to destroy the Green space & other industries ( NORAHG ). 

 

NORAHG is a non-profit & independent organization that reports on the work of several highly-rated leading experts who have recognized expertise, training, & backgrounds in matters concerning pest control products, & who promote environmental realism & pesticide truths. 

 

NORAHG produces A Look At …, a series of reports & blogs providing TECHNICAL INFORMATION on issues such as Career Management, Golf Course Maintenance, Green Alternatives, History Of The Turfgrass Industry, Lawn Care Maintenance, Summer Stress, Tree & Shrub Maintenance, Turfgrass Pests, & Turfgrass Species.

 

A Look At … is destined for the green space industry, nation-wide across Canada, the United States, & overseas, & can be found on The Pesticide Truths Web-Site      http://pesticidetruths.com/  

 

A Look At … is committed to SOUND SCIENCE, as well as ground breaking original reporting that informs, entertains, & creates real change.

 

All information, excerpts, & pictures contained in A Look At … were retrieved from the Internet, & may be considered in the public domain. 

 

The information presented in A Look At … is for preliminary planning. 

 

Before making a final decision, the turf manager is expected to obtain trusted expert advice from extension specialists, local distributors and/or agronomists. 

 

All decisions must take into account the prevailing growing conditions, the time of year, & the established management practices. 

 

All products mentioned in A Look At … should be used in accordance with the manufacturer’s directions, & according to provincial, state, or federal law. 

 

For the official advantages, benefits, features, precautions, & restrictions concerning any product, the turf manager must rely only on the information furnished by the manufacturer. 

 

The mention of trade names does not constitute a guarantee or a warranty.

 

NORAHG also produces Force Of Nature, which dares to defy the pesticide-hating fanatжcs by exploring the whole truth from an independent perspective on The Pesticide Truths Web-Site      http://pesticidetruths.com/  

 

A Look At …, Force Of Nature, & their various incarnations, was the brain-child of William H Gathercole ( now retired ) & his colleagues. 

 

Here is a brief summary of Mr Gathercole’s career     

 

FIELDS OF UNIVERSITY STUDY         Crop, Horticulture, & Turfgrass Sciences      Mathematics & Physics

 

ALMA MATERS         McGill University      University of Guelph      the first person ever to obtain bachelors of science degrees & contribute directly to both the professional lawn care & golf maintenance industries. 

 

EXPERTISE         turf & ornamental maintenance & troubleshooting      history of the green space industry      sales & distribution of seeds, chemicals, fertilizers, & equipment      fertilizer manufacturing & distribution      environmental issues & anti-pesticide terrжrism. 

 

NOTABLE ACTIVITIES         worked in virtually all aspects of the green space industry, including golf maintenance, professional lawn care, tree & shrub care, distribution, environmental compliance, government negotiations, public affairs, & workplace safety      the supervisor, consultant, &, programmer for the successful execution of hundreds-of-thousands of management operations in the golf course & urban landscape, as well as millions of pest control applications      the advisor, instructor, & trainer for thousands of turf & ornamental managers & technicians      the pesticide certification instructor for thousands of industry workers      a founder of the modern professional lawn care industry      the prolific writer for industry publications, reports, & blogs      the first to confirm the invasion of European Chafer insects in both the Montreal region & the Vancouver / Fraser Valley region      with Dr Peter Dernoeden, the first to confirm the presence of Take All Patch as a disease of turf in Eastern Canada      with Dr David Shetlar, the first to confirm the presence of Kentucky Bluegrass Scale as an insect pest in south-western Ontario, & later, in the Montreal & Vancouver regions. 

 

SPECIAL CONTRIBUTIONS         the creator of the Pesticide Ban Exception Status that allowed the golf industry to avoid being subjected to anti-pesticide prohibition for a generation      the creator of the signs that are now used for posting after application      the co-founder of annual winter convention for Quebec golf course superintendents      the founder of the first ever Turf Summit with guest Dr Jack L Eggens   https://wp.me/p1jq40-7dT      the major influence in the decision by Canadian Cancer Society to stop selling-for-profit fresh pesticide-treated daffodils   https://wp.me/P1jq40-1OW      the only true reliable witness of the events of anti-pesticide prohibition in the town of Hudson, Quebec   https://wp.me/p1jq40-asu      the founder ( now retired ) of A Look At … & Force Of Nature reports & blogs. 

 

NOTABLE AWARD         the first man-of-the-year for contributions leading to the successful founding of the Quebec professional lawn care trade association, which served as a beach-head against anti-pesticide activists in the 1980s & 1990s. 

 

LEGACIES      Mr Gathercole & his colleagues         designed & implemented strategies that reined anti-pesticide activists & provided peace & prosperity for the entire modern green space industry for a generation      orchestrated legal action against anti-pesticide activists in the town of Hudson, Quebec      launched the largest founding professional lawn care business in the nation      quadrupled the business revenues of one of the largest suppliers in the nation. 

 

Mr Gathercole is now retired, although his name continues to appear as the founder of A Look At … & Force Of Nature reports & blogs. 

 

We dare to defy by exploring the whole truth from an independent perspective on The Pesticide Truths Web-Site      http://pesticidetruths.com/  

 

We are the National Organization Responding Against HUJE that conspire to destroy the Green space and other industries ( NORAHG ). 

 

If you wish to receive free reports & blogs on issues that concern you, please contact us at      force.of.de.nature@gmail.com   WILLIAM H GATHERCOLE AND NORAH G  

 

 

 

――――――――――――――――――――

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

――――――――――――――――――――

 

 

 

 

Uncategorized
https://wp.me/p1jq40-cPx