Bee Crises In Ancient & Historical Times – The First Evidence For Bee Disappearances Goes Back Centuries – There Is NO Modern Bee Crisis With Neonicotinoid Insecticides – 2014 06 17

 

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The Bee’s Knees Question

 

 

What Do The Years Of

 

992, 1443, 1853, And 1903

 

Have In Common ?!?!

 

 

 

June 17th, 2014

 

Norm Benson

 

Science 2.0

 

Selected And Adapted Excerpts

 

 

 

 

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Overview    Bee Crises

 

 

Historically, bee crises are nothing new since heavy losses have been reported for a long time.

 

Wasn’t so-called Bee Colony Collapse Disorder first identified in, what, 2006 ?!?!  YES !  But the first evidence for such disappearances goes back centuries.

 

And, isn’t the Modern Bee-Keeping Industry actually THRIVING ?!?!  YES !

 

Have there been ancient and historical bee crises ?!?!  YES !

 

So, is there a modern bee crisis ?!?!  NO !

 

 

 

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It’s time once again for everyone’s favorite game show    Environmental Whack-A-Mole !  

 

 

Author   

 

What Black and White, Manichaean Green scare do we have for scientific experts to bat down with nuanced arguments today, Johnny ?!?!

 

 

Johnny   

 

This time it’s Bee Colony Collapse Disorder ( BCCD ) that’s in the news once again. 

 

Many greens want to ban a particular class of synthetic pesticide they say leads to BCCD. 

 

Bee Colony Collapse Disorder is a mysterious loss of most or all worker bees from the hive of the European honey bee ( Apis mellifera ), where only a small number of young workers and the queen remain, and, even more baffling, the ample food supplies left behind are not raided by pests for several weeks after the collapse.  [1]

 

 

Author   

 

I see.  Wasn’t Bee Colony Collapse Disorder first identified in, what, 2006 ?!?!

 

 

Johnny   

 

Yes.  But the first evidence for such disappearances GOES BACK CENTURIES.

 

That’s longer ago than 2006.

 

 

Author   

 

Wow, nothing gets by you, does it, Sherlock ?!?!

 

 

Johnny   

 

Yes.  In Ireland, there was a great mortality of bees in 950, entomologist Joe Ballenger notes, and again in 992 and 1443.  [2]

 

In 1853, Lorenzo Langstroth, the father of American bee-keeping, described colonies that were found to be utterly deserted.  The comb was empty, and the only symptom of life was the poor queen herself.  [3]

 

In 1868, an anonymous reporter told of abandoned hives with lots of honey still in them.

 

In 1891 and 1896, many bees vanished or dwindled to tiny clusters with queens in the month of May, hence the name    May Disease.  [4]

 

In 1903 an outbreak occurred in Cache Valley in Utah.  [5]

 

The Isle of Wight in the United Kingdom saw three epidemics between 1905 and 1919, 90 per cent of the honey bee colonies there died.  [6]

 

In 1918 and 1919, there were occurrences in the United States.  [7]

 

There were more mysterious bee disappearances in the 1960s in California, Louisiana, and Texas. 

 

Another, in 1975, in Australia, Mexico, and 27 U.S. states.  [8]

 

In 1995, Pennsylvania bee-keepers lost 53 per cent of their colonies.  [9]

 

The term Bee Colony Collapse Disorder was coined and defined around 2007.

 

 

 

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FOOTNOTES    REFERENCES

 

 

[1]   Underwood, Robyn M, and Dennis vanEngelsdorp.  Colony Collapse Disorder    Have We Seen This Before ?!?!  2007.

 

EXCERPTS   

 

The losses that have been occurring for over 100 years could be completely separate events or part of a cycle of disappearance.

 

So far, we can only speculate.

 

The cause of the recent honey bee colony losses, termed Colony Collapse Disorder, is still unknown [ see MAAREC.org for the latest information ].

 

Scientists are working hard to determine what is killing our bees.

 

It is hoped that, armed with many new tools, such as a complete mapping of the honey bee genome and modern molecular techniques, the cause of this latest outbreak will be determined.

 

Table 1. Past years of large-scale colony losses

 

Year Location Citation

 

1868 Kentucky, Tennessee

1872 Australia

1906 Isle of Wight

1910 Australia

1915 Portland, Oregon

1915 Florida to California

1917 United States

1917 New Jersey, Canada

1960’s Louisiana, Texas

1960’s Louisiana, Texas

1960’s Louisiana

1963-64 Louisiana

1964 California

1970’s Mexico

1970’s Seattle, Washington

1974 Texas

1975 Australia

1977 Mexico

1978 Florida

1995-1996 Penn

 

 

REFERENCE — PCP & BEES — 2007 00 00 — CRISES IN ANCIENT & HISTORICAL TIMES — COLONY COLLAPSE DISORDER    HAVE WE SEEN THIS BEFORE ?!?! — UNDERWOOD & VANENGELSDORP

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/Reference-PCP-Bees-2007-00-00-CRISES-IN-ANCIENT-TIMES-Colony-Collapse-Disorder-Have-We-Seen-This-Before-Underwood-et-al.pdf

 

 

[2]   Ballenger, Joe.  Colony Collapse Disorder    An Introduction.  2007.  Accessed May 18, 2014.

 

EXCERPTS   

 

For as long as we’ve been keeping good records, we’ve recorded [ bee ] losses.

 

One of the articles announcing the Colony Collapse problem appeared in PLOS Biology in 2007, and described these ancient losses in quite a bit of detail :

 

Some winter losses are normal, and because the proportion of colonies dying varies enormously from year to year, it is difficult to say when a crisis is occurring and when losses are part of the normal continuum.

 

What is clear is that about one year in ten, apiarists suffer unusually heavy colony losses.

 

This has been going on for a long time.

 

In Ireland, there was a « great mortality of bees » in 950, and again in 992 and 1443.

 

One of the most famous events was in the spring of 1906, when most bee-keepers on the Isle of Wight ( United Kingdom ) lost all of their colonies.

 

American bee-keepers also suffer heavy losses periodically.

 

In 1903, in the Cache valley of Utah, 2000 colonies were lost to a mysterious « disappearing disease » following a « hard winter and cold spring ».

 

More recently, there was an incident in 1995 in which Pennsylvania beekeepers lost 53 per cent of colonies.

 

Often terms such as « disappearing disease » or « spring dwindling » are used to describe the syndrome in which large numbers of colonies die in spring due to a lack of adult bees.

 

However in 2007, some bee-keepers experienced 80 to 100 per cent losses.

 

This is certainly the extreme end of a continuum, so perhaps there is indeed some new factor in play.

 

 

REFERENCE — PCP & BEES — 2007 00 00 — CRISES IN ANCIENT & HISTORICAL TIMES — COLONY COLLAPSE DISORDER    AN INTRODUCTION — BALLENGER

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/Reference-PCP-Bees-2007-00-00-CRISES-IN-ANCIENT-TIMES-Colony-Collapse-Disorder-An-Introduction-Ballenger.pdf

 

 

[2]   Oldroyd, Benjamin P.  What’s Killing American Honey Bees ?!?!  PLoS Biol 5(6): e168. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050168

 

EXCERPTS   

 

Some winter losses are normal, and because the proportion of colonies dying varies enormously from year to year, it is difficult to say when a crisis is occurring and when losses are part of the normal continuum.

 

What is clear is that about one year in ten, apiarists suffer unusually heavy colony losses.

 

This has been going on for a long time.

 

In Ireland, there was a « great mortality of bees » in 950, and again in 992 and 1443. 

 

One of the most famous events was in the spring of 1906, when most bee-keepers on the Isle of Wight ( United Kingdom ) lost all of their colonies. 

 

American bee-keepers also suffer heavy losses periodically.

 

In 1903, in the Cache valley of Utah, 2000 colonies were lost to a mysterious « disappearing disease » following a « hard winter and cold spring ». 

 

More recently, there was an incident in 1995 in which Pennsylvania bee-keepers lost 53 per cent of colonies. 

 

Often terms such as « disappearing disease » or « spring dwindling » are used to describe the syndrome in which large numbers of colonies die in spring due to a lack of adult bees. 

 

However in 2007, some bee-keepers experienced 80 to 100 per cent losses.

 

This is certainly the extreme end of a continuum, so perhaps there is indeed some new factor in play.

 

 

REFERENCE — PCP & BEES — 2007 06 12 — CRISES IN ANCIENT & HISTORICAL TIMES — WHAT’S KILLING AMERICAN HONEY BEES ?!?! — BENJAMIN

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/Reference-PCP-Bees-2007-06-12-CRISES-IN-ANCIENT-TIMES-What%E2%80%99s-Killing-American-Honey-Bees-Benjamin.pdf

 

 

[3]   Nordhaus, Hannah.  An Environmental Journalist’s Lament.  2011.  Accessed March 30, 2013.

 

EXCERPT   

 

Honey bees have also disappeared before.

 

In 1853, Lorenzo Langstroth, the 19th century bee-keeper who invented the modern hive, described colonies that were « found, on being examined one morning, to be utterly deserted. »

 

« The comb was empty, and the only symptom of life was the poor queen herself. »

 

In 1891 and 1896, large clusters of bees vanished in a case known as « May Disease ».

 

In the 1960s, bees vanished mysteriously in Texas, Louisiana, and California.

 

In 1975, a similar epidemic cropped up in Australia, Mexico, and 27 US states.

 

There were heavy losses in France from 1998 to 2000 and also in California in 2005, just two years before CCD was first diagnosed.

 

 

REFERENCE — PCP & BEES — 2011 06 00 — CRISES IN ANCIENT & HISTORICAL TIMES — AN ENVIRONMENTAL JOURNALIST’S LAMENT — NORDHAUS

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/Reference-PCP-Bees-2011-06-00-CRISES-IN-ANCIENT-TIMES-An-Environmental-Journalist%E2%80%99s-Lament-Nordhaus.pdf

 

 

[4]   Underwood, Robyn M, and Dennis vanEngelsdorp.  Colony Collapse Disorder    Have We Seen This Before ?!?!  2007.

 

 

[5]   Ballenger, Joe.  Colony Collapse Disorder    An Introduction.  2007.  Accessed May 18, 2014.  Oldroyd, BP.

 

[5]   Oldroyd, Benjamin P.  What’s Killing American Honey Bees ?!?!  PLoS Biol 5(6): e168. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050168

 

 

 

[6]   Underwood, Robyn M, and Dennis vanEngelsdorp.  Colony Collapse Disorder    Have We Seen This Before ?!?!  2007.

 

 

[7]   Oldroyd, Benjamin P.  What’s Killing American Honey Bees ?!?!  PLoS Biol 5(6): e168. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050168

 

 

[8]   Nordhaus, Hannah.  An Environmental Journalist’s Lament.  2011.  Accessed March 30, 2013.

 

 

[9]   Ballenger, Joe.  Colony Collapse Disorder    An Introduction.  2007.  Accessed May 18, 2014.  Oldroyd, BP.

 

 

 

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ANCIENT & HISTORICAL BEE CRISES    REFERENCE

 

 

REFERENCE — PCP & BEES — 2014 06 17 — CRISES IN ANCIENT & HISTORICAL TIMES — WHAT DO THE YEARS OF 992, 1443, 1853, & 1903 HAVE IN COMMON ?!?!

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/Reference-PCP-Bees-2014-06-17-CRISES-IN-ANCIENT-TIMES-What-Do-The-Years-Of-992-1443-1853-1903-Have-In-Common-1.pdf

 

 

 

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