Ticks are the most common arthropod vectors of both human and animal diseases in Europe, and the Ixodes ricinus tick species is able to transmit a large number of bacteria, viruses and parasites. Ticks may also be co-infected with several pathogens, with a subsequent high likelihood of co-transmission to humans or animals. However few data exist regarding co-infection prevalences, and these studies only focus on certain well-known pathogens. In addition to pathogens, ticks also carry symbionts that may play important roles in tick biology, and could interfere with pathogen maintenance and transmission. In this study we evaluated the prevalence of 38 pathogens and four symbionts and their co-infection levels as well as possible interactions between pathogens, or between pathogens and symbionts.
A total of 267 Ixodes ricinus female specimens were collected in the French Ardennes and analyzed by high-throughput real-time PCR for the presence of 37 pathogens (bacteria and parasites), by rRT-PCR to detect the presence of Tick-Borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and by nested PCR to detect four symbionts. Possible multipartite interactions between pathogens, or between pathogens and symbionts were statistically evaluated. Among the infected ticks, 45% were co-infected, and carried up to five different pathogens. When adding symbiont prevalences, all ticks were infected by at least one microorganism, and up to eight microorganisms were identified in the same tick. When considering possible interactions between pathogens, the results suggested a strong association between Borrelia garinii and B. afzelii, whereas there were no significant interactions between symbionts and pathogens.
The town of Hudson’s former director general Louise Léger-Villandré was sentenced to 30 months in prison during a Quebec Court hearing Monday morning in Valleyfield.
In December, Léger-Villandré, now 66, pleaded guilty to six of 19 criminal charges she faced, including charges involving more than $1 million that went missing from town hall coffers between 1996 and 2013.
She appeared before Judge Michel Mercier Monday morning for about 20 minutes. A red suitcase with her belongings was brought into the courtroom moments before she was whisked away to begin serving her sentence.
Léger-Villandré, who appeared calm and collected as she waited for her sentencing to be formalized, didn’t make a statement before the judge.
Crown prosecutor Mathieu Longpré and defence lawyer Robert La Haye had agreed to recommend a 30-month sentence.
Richmond has learned there are trade-offs to banning all pesticide-use in weed abatement activities on city properties.
One year after Richmond City Council installed the ban, sparing the community from exposure to the widely-used herbicide glyphosate, city groundskeepers say they are struggling to keep up with ever-sprouting weeds in public spaces.
Public Works Director Yader presented images at Tuesday’s council meeting of overgrown public right-of-ways no longer controlled by pesticides. The city is also having a difficult time tending to youth sports fields ahead of the summer season, Yader said, adding that at least four additional groundskeepers are needed to make up for what the use of pesticides can accomplish.
And while the groundskeepers don’t have to breathe in potentially cancer-causing chemicals, Yader added, they suffer from back problems from pulling weeds and have to spend more time working amid dangerous traffic.
Despite the hardships, the majority on City Council did not appear intent on reinstating pesticide use. They cite emerging research on glyphosate, such as a finding last year by the World Health Organization (WHO) that the chemical is “probably carcinogenic to humans.” The finding was vehemently disputed by industry leaders. The issue on whether glyphosate causes cancer is currently being debated in Europe, where the European Union must decide whether to continue to extend the approval of its use.
Councilmember Nat Bates believes the city should bring pesticides back, saying the city is beginning to look shabby, which creates a lower quality of life for residents. He added that he doesn’t believe Richmond, which is trying to close an $8 million budget deficit, can afford to pioneer the issue. Richmond is one of only a few jurisdictions in California to have implemented a ban, according to city staff.
Well I’ve been working a lot at this time of year and I started this site up to blow off some steam but over the last 2 weeks I haven’t been able to write a post or review a few beers. I have now been put back to a sane work pace of less than 60 hours a week and I will be posting a bunch on Wednesday.
The EPA rules on Exempt minimum risks natural pesticides effective on February 26, 2016 the final new label compliance date of February 26, 2019