A Look At … The History Of The Turfgrass Industry – Looking Back While Looking Forward – Looking Back At The Year 1947 – 2018 12 21

 

 

 

 

 

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December 21st, 2018

 

United States Golf Association

 

Selected And Adapted Excerpts

 

Reference 

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Reference-History-USGA-Looking-Back-While-Looking-Forward.pdf

 

 

 

 

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Looking Back At The Year 1947

 

 

Looking back often provides an interesting perspective when discussing golf course playing conditions and sustainability. 

 

Take this excerpt for example   

 

Better turf for better golf is the goal of all pest control programs (  weeds, diseases, insects, and small animals  ), but the development of the most desirable types of turf for golf depends also upon skill in management. 

 

The characteristics of turf affecting the ball in play are highly important. 

 

Close cutting, maximum density, and firmness with resiliency are three terms most applicable to turf of tournament quality on all but the roughs. 

 

This perspective on turf maintenance holds just as true today as when the article was published in the May 1947 issue of the USGA Green Section Record. 

 

So, where have we been, where are we now and where are we going in the future with playing conditions and sustainability ?!?! 

 

Specifically, where has technology taken us and what does the future hold ?!?! 

 

Before bringing out a crystal ball it is best to take a quick look at where we came from by going back 70 years and beyond. 

 

In golf’s infant stage, turf conditions were primarily dictated by survival of the fittest. 

 

Over time, new technologies have helped to reduce damage from diseases, weeds, insects and other pests. 

 

As the game grew in popularity, so too did the desire to improve playing conditions. 

 

The paragraph referenced above is a good reflection of those desires. 

 

The same article goes on to address each of the three main playing areas   

 

Turf on tees should be firm to give confidence in the stance and be resilient to permit ready insertion of the peg tee. 

 

Generous fertilization, improved soil texture, and minimum irrigation consistent with good turf are guides to better turf on teeing grounds. 

 

Turf on fairways should be firm to provide a « short roll » for the ball, resilient to facilitate walking, and of maximum density to hold the ball up so that it does not sink down into the grass. 

 

The worst enemy of good shots on the fairway is deep, soft, lush, over-watered turf. 

 

A small divot usually indicates better playing conditions than a large divot. 

 

Putting surfaces should be firm to avoid foot-printing and should be resilient so that a properly played shot will hold, but should be sufficiently solid so that a poorly played shot will roll over. 

 

The surface should be smooth and true as a billiard table. 

 

Density of the turf should be so great that individual grass blades are crowded to a true vertical position. 

 

« Graininess », « sponge », or « mat » destroy accuracy and the fun in golf.

 

Governing factors include    choice of grass, soil texture, drainage and aeration, fertility level, and watering practices. 

 

 

[  See later segment entitled Looking Back At The Year 1947.  ] 

 

 

 

Explore the following reference   

 

 

USGA, May 1947. 

Playing Conditions Reflect Skill In Turf Management. 

From Timely Turf Topics Issued by the United States Golf Association Green Section. 

May 1947.  The author is anonymous. 

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Reference-History-USGA-1947-05-00-Playing-Conditions-Reflect-Skill-In-Turf-Management.pdf

 

 

 

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Looking Back While Looking Forward

 

Robotic Mowers

 

 

The use of ROBOTIC MOWERS is likely to increase in the coming years, helping to further improve productivity.

 

 

 

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Looking Back While Looking Forward

 

Advances, Innovations, & Trends

 

 

During the past 70 years, many technological advances and maintenance trends have improved playing conditions. 

 

However, a new challenge has been introduced, embodied in the word « sustainability ». 

 

Concerns regarding resource consumption and the environment have led to the introduction of new technologies during the past several decades. 

 

These new technologies are having a truly positive impact on playing conditions and environmental and economic sustainability. 

 

A small, and in no way complete, List Of Key Innovations & Maintenance Trends can be viewed in the next segment   

 

 

 

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Looking Back While Looking Forward

 

List Of Key Innovations & Maintenance Trends

 

 

 

During The 1960s   

 

 

Improved grasses. 

 

Triplex mowers for putting greens. 

 

USGA putting green construction method. 

 

 

 

During The 1970s   

 

 

Automated irrigation systems. 

 

 

 

During The 1980s   

 

 

Improved grasses. 

 

Spikeless golf shoes. 

 

Two-way radio communication. 

 

Upgrades to aeration & irrigation equipment. 

 

 

 

During The 1990s   

 

 

Bunker liners. 

 

Cell phone communication. 

 

Equipment wash areas. 

 

Fairway topdressing. 

 

Growth regulators. 

 

Individual irrigation head control. 

 

The internet & personal computers. 

 

 

 

During The 2000s   

 

 

Improved warm-season grasses. 

 

Large-scale tree removal projects. 

 

Oscillating fans. 

 

Spin top-dressers. 

 

 

 

During The 2010s   

 

 

Drones. 

 

Forward tee additions. 

 

GPS-guided sprayers. 

 

Moisture meters. 

 

Robotic mowers. 

 

Wireless irrigation. 

 

 

 

In The Future   

 

 

Course mapping. 

 

Forward tee additions. 

 

Identifying weeds for spot spray. 

 

New grasses that use less water & offer greater pest resistance. 

 

Robotic mowing on larger areas. 

 

Soil moisture sensors. 

 

Task tracking to improve management. 

 

Data-driven decision models will also play an increasingly important role in course maintenance. 

 

Examples include the use of growing-degree-day models for applying plant growth regulators, Poa annua seed-head suppression models and Dollar Spot disease control models. 

 

 

 

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Looking Back While Looking Forward

 

Conclusion

 

 

The desire for quality playing conditions has remained unchanged, and it is not expected to change in the future. 

 

However, new technology will help deliver the conditions we desire with less water, less labor, and improved environmental and economic sustainability. 

 

Technology has always been a key component in advancing the game, and those who are technologically savvy are expected to carry the torch forward. 

 

Unfortunately, none of these advancements address the fundamental difficulty of making every 3-foot putt. 

 

 

 

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Explore the following link 

 

The Media Library Of

References On The History

Of The Turfgrass Industry

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/the-history-of-the-turfgrass-industry/

 

 

 

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The History Of The Turfgrass Industry In 1947

 

Golf Course Maintenance    Putting Greens

 

 

 

Looking back at the year 1947   

 

 

In 1947, poor physical soil conditions were blamed for inferior putting green conditions. 

 

Both annual bluegrass and clover were problematic only when soil aeration and soil drainage were inadequate. 

 

To alleviate these conditions, mechanical aeration was required, using hand and power-driven tubular tine forks, mechanically-operated drills, roller spikers, and even potato forks. 

 

The soil itself was improved either by intensive topdressing, or re-construction. 

 

Obviously, under any poor soil condition, such as compaction, annual bluegrass was known to flourish. 

 

In the late 1940s, there were even reports of annual bluegrass putting greens thriving at 3/16-inch. 

 

( Grau, 1948; USGA, January 1947; USGA, February 1947. ) 

 

 

 

Explore the following references   

 

 

Grau, 1948. 

Poa Annua    Friend Or Foe ? 

The author is Grau, Fred V. 

From the United States Golf Association Journal Combining 

Timely Turf Topics.  June 1948.  Volume 1.  Number 2. 

 

It should be noted that Doctor Fred V. Grau was appointed agronomist for the United States Golf Association ( USGA ) Green Section in 1945.  He was the first of many agronomists to be part of this new advisory service available to the golf course industry. 

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Reference-History-Grau-Poa-annua-Friend-Or-Foe.pdf

 

 

USGA, January 1947. 

Major Turf Problems Of 1946. 

From Timely Turf Topics Issued by the United States Golf Association Green Section. 

January 1947.  The author is anonymous. 

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Reference-History-USGA-1947-01-00-Green-Section-Timely-Turf-Topics-Problems-HIGHLIGHTED.pdf

 

 

USGA, February 1947. 

Favorable Physical Soil Conditions Are Basic To Good Turf. 

From Timely Turf Topics Issued by the United States Golf Association Green Section. 

February 1947.  The author is anonymous. 

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Reference-History-USGA-1947-02-00-Green-Section-Timely-Turf-Topics-Soil-HIGHLIGHTED.pdf

 

 

 

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The History Of The Turfgrass Industry In 1947

 

Golf Course Maintenance    Fairways

 

 

 

Looking back at the year 1947   

 

 

From 1942 to 1949, in the United States, golf course fairways were mowed narrower in order to save gasoline that was needed for fighting in the Second World War ( 1939-1945 ). 

 

The rough was cut shorter in order to reduce the risk of losing balls. 

 

The production of golf balls was stopped because rubber was also needed for fighting in the Second World War ( 1939-1945 ). 

 

In the late 1940s, there were reports of annual bluegrass fairways thriving at ½-inch. 

 

( Barkow, 1989; Grau, 1948. ) 

 

 

 

Explore the following references   

 

 

Barkow, 1989. 

The History of the PGA Tour. 

The author is Barkow, Al. 

Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group, Inc.: New York. 

 

 

Grau, 1948. 

Poa Annua    Friend Or Foe ?  

The author is Grau, Fred V. 

From the United States Golf Association Journal Combining Timely Turf Topics. 

June 1948.  Volume 1.  Number 2. 

 

It should be noted that Doctor Fred V. Grau was appointed agronomist for the United States Golf Association ( USGA ) Green Section in 1945.  He was the first of many agronomists to be part of this new advisory service available to the golf course industry. 

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Reference-History-Grau-Poa-annua-Friend-Or-Foe.pdf

 

 

 

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http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/Reference-History-Golfdom-1947-04-00-3-32-REDUCED-SIZE.pdf

 

 

 

 

 

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The History Of The Turfgrass Industry In 1947

 

Mowing Equipment

 

 

 

Looking back at the year 1947   

 

 

During the 1940s, the popularity of the « small rotary mower » increased dramatically in the turf maintenance industry, although the « mechanical push-reel-mower » had been in use since the early 1800s, and the « gasoline- or petrol-powered reel-mower » since the early 1900s. 

 

Standard was a pioneer-manufacturer in the rotary mower market. 

 

In 1947, in the United States, the number of manufacturers of « rotary lawn mower » was measured at 66. 

 

( Kurtz, 2000. ) 

 

 

 

Background information   

 

 

Jacobsen 4-Acre Mower

 

Since 1921, the Jacobsen Manufacturing Company had introduced the « 4-acre », the FIRST reel mower equipped with an internal combustion engine designed for the turf maintenance industry. 

 

It was named the « 4-acre » obviously because it could mow a four-acre area per day. 

 

Therefore, it was used in cemeteries, golf course fairways and rough, large estates, parks, and playgrounds. 

 

( Jacobsen, 2016; Jacobsen-Wikipedia; Kurtz, 2000. ) 

 

Later, The Toro Motor Company introduced the FIRST 76-inch Professional reel mower. 

 

 

Jacobsen Greens Mower 

 

Since 1923, Jacobsen had also introduced the FIRST EVER « cast aluminum power greens mower » for use in the golf course maintenance industry. 

 

It was designed to cut fine turf and bentgrass putting greens without damaging the meticulously conditioned surfaces. 

 

The initial reaction green-keepers to this new power-driven unit was cautious. 

 

They feared the following problems    compaction, gasoline and oil spills, and scalping. 

 

Prior to this time, the « mechanical push-mower » was used for mowing the putting greens. 

 

( Jacobsen-Wikipedia; Kurtz, 2000. ) 

 

 

Victory Gardens

 

On December 7th, 1941, Japan attacked the Pearl Harbor naval base, near Honolulu, which brought the United States into The Second World War ( 1939-1945 ). 

 

As a result, governments in America and Canada urged their citizens to remain « home-bound » during the war. 

 

Governments also encouraged people to plant self-sustaining vegetables in what were called « victory gardens », often to the detriment of home lawns. 

 

All these efforts were necessary to conserve food, gasoline, and motor vehicle tires. 

 

Since many citizens became « home-bound », their interests were diverted toward maintaining their lawns. 

 

( Jenkins, 1994. ) 

 

 

Eclipse, The World’s Best Lawn Mower Stands By For V Day

 

Additionally, several companies advertised the purchase and use of lawn care products as a patriotic duty. 

 

For example, the Eclipse Lawn Mower Company advertised ―  « Eclipse : The World’s Best Lawn Mower Stands By For V Day ». 

 

( Jenkins, 1994. ) 

 

Nonetheless, after the war, millions of people became home-owners for the first time, and needed to spend the time and money to properly maintain their yards ( i.e. urban green spaces ). 

 

 

 

Explore the following references   

 

 

Jacobsen 2016. 

Jacobsen Celebrates 95th Anniversary. 

From Turf Business. 

The author is anonymous. 

The date of publication is August 22, 2016. 

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Reference-History-Jacobsen-Celebrates-95th-Anniversary.pdf

 

 

Jacobsen-Wikipedia. 

Jacobsen Manufacturing. 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 

The author is anonymous. 

The date of publication is September 27, 2017. 

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Reference-History-Jacobsen-Jacobsen-Manufacturing-Wikipedia.pdf

 

 

Jenkins, 1994. 

The Lawn.  A History of an American Obsession. 

Eclipse – The World’s Best Lawn Mower Stands By For V Day.  ( Excerpt. )

The author is Jenkins, Virginia Scott. 

Smithsonian Institution Press : Washington. 

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Reference-History-Jenkins-Eclipse-The-World%E2%80%99s-Best-Lawn-Mower-Stands-By-For-V-Day-HIGHLIGHTED.pdf

 

 

Kurtz, 2000. 

The History of Turfgrass Equipment. 

The author is Kurtz, Kent W. 

From Turfgrass Management.  Volume III.  Issue 2. 

 

 

Toro. 

The Toro Company History. 

The author is anonymous. 

The date of publication is unknown. 

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Reference-History-Toro-The-Toro-Company-History.pdf

 

 

Toro-Wikipedia. 

Toro Company. 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 

The author is anonymous. 

The date of publication is December 9, 2018. 

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Reference-History-Toro-Toro-Company-Wikipedia.pdf

 

 

 

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http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/Reference-History-Golfdom-1947-07-00-3-76-REDUCED-SIZE.pdf

 

 

 

 

 

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The History Of The Turfgrass Industry In 1947

 

Nitrogen Fertilization

 

 

 

Looking back at the year 1947   

 

 

In 1947, nitrogen sources, such as ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, calcium nitrate ( « calnitro » ), sodium nitrate, and urea, were the big items for fertilizing turf. 

 

A small shortage of nitrogen was expected    the United Nations was allocating nitrogen to countries occupied or devastated by the Second World War ( 1939-1945 ). 

 

( USGA, January 1947. ) 

 

For home lawns, the favoured fertilizer ratio was 5-10-5, with 25 to 50 per cent « organic » [ i.e. « natural organic » ]. 

 

The low nitrogen level was preferred because of the reduced risk of burning turf. 

 

( USGA, February 1947. ) 

 

 

 

Background information   

 

 

Ammonium Sulfate

 

Experiments had showed that ammonium sulfate was not only conducive to turfgrass growth, but it was also very effective in discouraging the invasion of weeds. 

 

It may have also controlled earthworms.

 

In the 1920s, and until 1944, ammonium sulfate was the most important nitrogen fertilizer in the United States, and likely in Canada as well.

 

( Beaton. ) 

 

For putting greens, the best of all fertilizers were either ammonium sulfate or ammonium phosphate, combined with topdressing. 

 

Soil-drenching with irrigation was required immediately after application to avoid burning turf. 

 

For fairways, barnyard or stable manure was considered best, although organic fertilizers were also used. 

 

These included  ──  bone meal, cottonseed meal, fish scrap, and tankage. 

 

Good results could also be expected with many of the commercially mixed fertilizers.

 

( Fitts, 1927; USGA, January 1927. ) 

 

For large or small lawns, the great majority traditionally received so little fertilization that most of them were deemed as « starving ». 

 

Ammonium sulfate was the product of choice. 

 

In order to avoid damaging turf with this fertilizer, the recommendation for fertilization needed to be simple and fairly fool-proof. 

 

Ammonium sulfate needed to be dissolved in water, and sprinkled over a small area of lawn. 

 

The fertilizer had to be either promptly soil-drenched with irrigation, or applied in the rain, otherwise severe burning occurred. 

 

The recommended rate was one pound of actual nitrogen per thousand square feet per application, in spring and fall. 

 

( Wilson, February 1927. ) 

 

 

Natural Organic Fertilizers

 

From about 1850 to 1900, in the United States, « natural organic » fertilizers were major sources of fertilizer nitrogen. 

 

Until about 1900, 90 per cent, or more, of all nitrogen fertilizers in America were « natural organic ». 

 

Examples of « natural organic » sources of nitrogen included    cottonseed meal, fish scrap, human excrement ( « poudrette » ), and slaughterhouse waste. 

 

In 1910, still 90 per cent of the fertilizer nitrogen consumed in the United States was in the form of « natural organic » materials, such as animal tankage, cottonseed meal, dried blood, and fish scrap. 

 

By 1920, 34 per cent of the fertilizer nitrogen consumed was in the form of « natural organic » materials. 

 

By 1942, it was over 11 per cent. 

 

( Beaton; NG-GOT. )  

 

 

Milorganite

 

Since 1925, the granular « natural organic » fertilizer Milorganite was derived from the bio-solids left over from the Jones Island Wastewater Treatment Plant, in the City of Milwaukee. 

 

It was the first time in the history of sanitation that a product had been produced from sewage. 

 

Milorganite was actually developed out of necessity to clean up the water system of the City of Milwaukee. 

 

Until the early part of the Twentieth Century, Milwaukee dumped its entire sewage into nearby rivers. 

 

Using this sewage to create Milorganite was a necessity in order to protect human health, fresh drinking water, and recreational areas. 

 

( WEF–2000. ) 

 

In Chicago, Milorganite was first officially introduced to the golf course maintenance industry in 1927    the Milwaukee Sewerage Commission presented its new granular organic fertilizer at the International Golf Show. 

 

Apparently, it had already been used on « numerous » golf courses during the previous years, with very satisfactory results. 

 

Its great selling feature in 1927 was that it did not burn turf ( unlike ammonium sulfate ). 

 

( Milorganite; Westover, 1927. ) 

 

In 1927, Milorganite was described to turf managers in the following way 

 

[ Milorganite ] is a granular and porous organic matter  [ … ] 

 

It carries approximately 5½ per cent nitrogen ( 6½ per cent ammonia ), about 2½ per cent phosphoric acid, and a little less than ½ per cent potash. 

 

The end product is said to be slightly acid, testing about pH 4.4. 

 

[ … ] 

 

This acidity  [ … ]  is not objectionable in growing such turf grasses as the bents and fescues. 

 

( Westover, 1927. ) 

 

In 1927, the early use of Milorganite appears to have been used with fertilizer-fungicide combinations for the control of « brown-patch » diseases on golf course putting greens. 

 

Mercury-based fungicides were mixed with Milorganite, which seemed to reduce the risk of injuring turf    a notorious problem of the mercurials. 

 

( Monteith, November 1927. ) 

 

During 1927, 23,555 US tons of Milorganite were sold, mostly in bulk. 

 

By the mid-1930s, Milorganite was being packaged in 25, 50, and whopping 100-pound bags. 

 

( Wow !  There were no forklifts in those days. )

 

 

 

Explore the following references   

 

 

Beaton.

Efficient Fertilizer Use    Fertilizer Use    A Historical Perspective. 

The date of publication is unknown. 

The author is Beaton, James. 

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Reference-History-Fertilizers-Efficient-Fertilizer-Use-Dr-James-Beaton.pdf

 

 

Fitts, 1927. 

Activities & Accomplishments Of The Green Section. 

From The Bulletin of the United States Golf Association Green Section.  

January, 1927.  Volume 7.  Number 1.  The author is O B Fitts. 

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/Reference-History-Fitts-Activities-Accomplishments-Of-The-Green-Section.pdf

 

 

Milorganite. 

History. 

From Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District. 

The author is anonymous.  The date of publication is unknown. 

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/Reference-History-Milorganite-History-1.pdf

 

 

Monteith, November 1927. 

1927 Experiments On Brown-Patch Control. 

From the Bulletin of the United States Golf Association Green Section. 

November 1927.  Volume 7.  Number 11. 

The author is Monteith Junior, John. 

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/Reference-History-Monteith-1927-Experiments-On-Brown-Patch-Control.pdf

 

 

NG-GOT.

Nu-Gro Technologies, Inc.  Glossary of Terms. 

From the Association of American Plant Food Control Officials. 

The author is anonymous.  The date of publication is unknown. 

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/Reference-History-Fertilizers-Glossary-Of-Terms-Nu-Gro-Technologies-Inc-1.pdf

 

 

Westover, 1927. 

Milorganite – An Activated Sludge. 

From The Bulletin of the United States Golf Association Green Section. 

September, 1927.  Volume 7.  Number 9.  The author is Westover, H L. 

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/Reference-History-Westover-Milorganite-An-Activated-Sludge.pdf

 

 

WEF-2000. 

Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District.  Continuing The Tradition Of Milorganite.  Pages 43 through 46. 

From Biosolids Success Stories.  The copyright date is 2000. 

A publication of the Water Environment Federation. 

 

The information was produced by the Water Environment Federation.  The official Federation web site is www.wef.org.  Pages 2 and 3 in the same document list the locations of other bio-solids facilities. 

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/Reference-History-WEF-2000-Milorganite-Continuing-The-Tradition-biosolids.org_.pdf

 

 

Wilson, February 1927. 

Ammonium Sulfate As A Help for Poor Lawns. 

From The Bulletin of the United States Golf Association Green Section. 

February, 1927.  Volume 7.  Number 2.  The author is Wilson, Alan D. 

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/Reference-History-Wilson-1927-02-00-Ammonium-Sulfate-As-A-Help-For-Poor-Lawns.pdf

 

 

USGA, January 1927. 

Questions & Answers. 

From The Bulletin of the United States Golf Association Green Section. 

January 1927.  Volume 7.  Number 1.  The author is anonymous. 

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/Reference-History-USGA-1927-01-00-Green-Section-Bulletin-Questions-Answers.pdf

 

 

USGA, January 1947. 

Fertilizer Supplies. 

From Timely Turf Topics Issued by the United States Golf Association Green Section. 

The author is anonymous. 

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Reference-History-USGA-1947-01-00-Green-Section-Timely-Turf-Topics-Fertilizer-HIGHLIGHTED.pdf

 

 

USGA, February 1947. 

Questions & Answers.  Fertilizers. 

From Timely Turf Topics Issued by the United States Golf Association Green Section. 

The author is anonymous. 

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Reference-History-USGA-1947-02-00-Green-Section-Timely-Turf-Topics-Fertilizer-HIGHLIGHTED.pdf

 

 

 

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The History Of The Turfgrass Industry In 1947

 

Disease Control    Mercurials

 

 

 

Looking back at the year 1947   

 

 

In 1947, in the wake of the Second World War, fungicide supplies of mercury-based products, like « Tersan OM », appeared to be adequate.  ( USGA, January 1947. ) 

 

 

 

Background information   

 

 

Mercury-Based Fungicides ( Mercurials )

 

Since the mid-1930s, a combination of « Semesan » ( chlorophenol mercury ) and thiram, named « Tersan OM », had become the standard control for turf diseases in the United States. 

 

Other mercury fungicides included    « Calogreen » or « Turf-calomel » ( calomel products ), and « corrosive sublimate » ( mercuric chloride ). 

 

( Monteith, November 1927. ) 

 

 

Putting Greens

 

On putting greens, fertilizer–fungicide combinations were being concocted by the « green-keepers » for the control of « brown-patch » disease on golf course putting greens. 

 

This involved mixing mercury-based fungicides with « natural organic » fertilizers like    cottonseed meal, Milorganite, poultry manure, and soybean meal    this combination reduced the risk of injuring turf, a notorious problem of the mercurials. 

 

Fertilizers were mixed with mercury-based fungicides that included    « Calogreen » or « Turf-calomel » ( calomel products ), and « corrosive sublimate » ( mercuric chloride ). 

 

Additionally, fertilizers were known to exacerbate damage caused by « large brown patch » ( known today as « rhizoctonia brown patch » ). 

 

( Monteith, November 1927. ) 

 

 

Cadmium-Based Fungicides

 

During the mid–1940s, Mallinckrodt introduced Cadminate ( cadmium succinate, an inorganic cadmium compound. ) as a fungicide for use in the turf maintenance industry to control dollar spot, copper spot, and red thread. 

 

Very low rates of product were required. 

 

It was a remarkably economical disease control product. 

 

( Couch, 1995. ) 

 

Over forty years later, during the mid-1980s, in Canada, fungicides consisting of cadmium, such as « Caddy » , were voluntarily withdrawn from the turf maintenance market.

 

 

 

Explore the following references   

 

 

Couch, 1995. 

Diseases of Turfgrasses.  Third Edition. 

The author is Couch, Houston B. 

Krieger Publishing Company : Malabar, Florida. 

 

 

Monteith, November 1927. 

1927 Experiments On Brown-Patch Control. 

From the Bulletin of the United States Golf Association Green Section. 

November 1927.  Volume 7.  Number 11. 

The author is Monteith Junior, John. 

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/Reference-History-Monteith-1927-Experiments-On-Brown-Patch-Control.pdf

 

 

USGA, January 1947. 

Fungicide-Insecticide Outlook For 1946. 

From Timely Turf Topics Issued by the United States Golf Association Green Section. 

The author is anonymous. 

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Reference-History-USGA-1947-01-00-Green-Section-Timely-Turf-Topics-Fungicides-HIGHLIGHTED.pdf

 

 

 

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http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/Reference-History-Golfdom-1947-04-00-3-32-REDUCED-SIZE.pdf

 

 

 

 

 

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The History Of The Turfgrass Industry In 1947

 

Weed Management    2,4-D

 

 

 

Looking back at the year 1947   

 

 

In 1947, in the United States, O M Scott & Sons produced the FIRST granular fertilizer plus 2,4-D herbicide. 

 

 

 

Background information   

 

 

By 1949, this new product was named « Scotts Weed and Feed ». 

 

Since the end of the Second World War ( 1945 ), O M Scott & Sons placed major emphasis on the development « weed killers » for use on turf. 

 

It released one of the FIRST 2,4-D-based products, called « 4-X » and « 4-XD ». 

 

In 1944, the herbicide 2,4-D was patented in the United States and Canada. 

 

It was an early example of a « selective synthetic organic herbicide ». 

 

2,4-D revolutionized broad-leaved weed control in agriculture and for the maintenance of green spaces. 

 

In 1868, the U S Civil War Veteran Orlando McLean Scott had founded O M Scott & Sons. 

 

It is now called Scotts Miracle-Gro Company. 

 

( Jenkins, 1994; Scotts. ) 

 

 

 

Explore the following references   

 

 

Jenkins, 1994. 

The Lawn.  A History Of An American Obsession. 

O M Scott & Sons.  ( Excerpt. ) 

The author is Jenkins, Virginia Scott. 

Smithsonian Institution Press : Washington. 

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Reference-History-Jenkins-O.M.-Scott-Sons.pdf

 

 

Scotts. 

Scotts Miracle Grow — Our History. 

The date of publication is unknown. 

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Reference-History-Scotts-Miracle-Grow-Our-History.pdf

 

 

BOH. 

Background On History Of Pesticide Use & Regulation In The United States. 

The author is anonymous.  The date of publication is unknown. 

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Reference-History-USA-Background-On-History-Of-Pesticide-Use-Regulation-In-The-United-States.pdf

 

 

 

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The History Of The Turfgrass Industry In 1947

 

2,4-D Injury

 

 

 

Looking back at the year 1947   

 

 

In 1947, several occurrences of foliar turfgrass injury caused, supposedly, by 2,4-D herbicide were reported to the United States Golf Association.

 

 

Background information   

 

 

In 1947, the 2,4-D application was not the culprit itself, but rather it was the herbicide residue remaining in the tank for the next application. 

 

Consequently, diluted household ammonia was recommended to clean METAL tanks and the lines whenever 2,4-D had been used. 

 

It was unknown what to do with wooden spray tanks. 

 

( USGA, January 1947. ) 

 

 

 

Explore the following reference   

 

 

USGA, January 1947. 

Removal Of 2,4-D From Spray Equipment. 

From Timely Turf Topics Issued by the United States Golf Association Green Section. 

The author is anonymous. 

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Reference-History-USGA-1947-01-00-Green-Section-Timely-Turf-Topics-24-D-HIGHLIGHTED.pdf

 

 

 

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The History Of The Turfgrass Industry In 1947

 

Insect Management    Lead Arsenate

 

 

 

Looking back at the year 1947   

 

 

Up until 1947, golf course superintendents had been successfully using mostly lead arsenate insecticide to control caterpillars, earthworms, sod webworms, and grubs on greens and fairways. 

 

 

 

Background information   

 

 

The methods of application with lead arsenate were    dust carrier, fertilizer combination, and spray. 

 

During the Second World War ( 1939-1945 ), the future availability of lead arsenate had been uncertain, and alternatives were actively sought. 

 

The search for these alternatives resulted in the discovery and practical implementation of the following insecticides    DDT, pyrethrum, rotenone, and sabadilla. 

 

( USGA, January 1947. ) 

 

 

 

Explore the following reference   

 

 

USGA, January 1947. 

Fungicide-Insecticide Outlook For 1946. 

From Timely Turf Topics Issued by the United States Golf Association Green Section. 

The author is anonymous. 

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Reference-History-USGA-1947-01-00-Green-Section-Timely-Turf-Topics-Insecticides-HIGHLIGHTED.pdf

 

 

 

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Explore even more references concerning the background information on pesticides in 1947   

 

 

Duble. 

Managing Turfgrass Insects. 

From Texas Cooperative Extension. 

The year of publication is unknown. 

The author is Duble, Richard L. 

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Reference-History-Duble-Managing-Turfgrass-Insects.pdf

 

 

Grau et al, January 1946. 

DDT. 

From the United States Golf Association Journal Combining Timely Turf Topics. 

No Volume or Number. 

The authors are Grau, Fred V, F H Williams, & Ian Forbes, Jr. 

 

It should be noted that Doctor Fred V Grau was appointed agronomist for the United States Golf Association ( USGA ) Green Section in 1945.  He was the first of many agronomists to be part of this new advisory service available to the golf course industry. 

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Reference-History-Grau-et-al-DDT.pdf

 

 

Kelsheimer, September 1948. 

Interesting Reading.  Insect Pests Of Lawns. 

From the United States Golf Association Journal Combining Timely Turf Topics. 

Volume I.  Number 5. 

The author is Kelsheimer, E G. 

Excerpts from the report of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station. 

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Reference-History-Kelsheimer-Interesting-Reading-Insect-Pests-Of-Lawns.pdf

 

 

Schread, June 1953. 

Chinch Bug Control. 

From USGA Journal & Turf Management. 

The author is Schread, John C.  Associate Entomologist. 

Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station. 

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Reference-History-Schread-Chinch-Bug-Control.pdf

 

 

USGA, June 1942. 

From Timely Turf Topics Issued by the United States Golf Association Green Section. 

The author is anonymous. 

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Reference-History-USGA-1942-06-00-Green-Section-Timely-Turf-Topics.pdf

 

 

USGA, November 1942. 

From Timely Turf Topics Issued by the United States Golf Association Green Section. 

The author is anonymous. 

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Reference-History-USGA-1942-11-00-Green-Section-Timely-Turf-Topics.pdf

 

 

USGA, January 1947. 

From Timely Turf Topics Issued by the United States Golf Association Green Section. 

The author is anonymous. 

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Reference-History-USGA-1947-01-00-Green-Section-Timely-Turf-Topics.pdf

 

 

USGA, November 1947. 

From Timely Turf Topics Issued by the United States Golf Association Green Section. 

The author is anonymous. 

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Reference-History-USGA-1947-11-00-Green-Section-Timely-Turf-Topics.pdf

 

 

USGA, Spring 1948. 

From Timely Turf Topics Issued by the United States Golf Association Green Section. 

The author is Dr Fred V Grau. 

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Reference-History-USGA-1948-00-00-Green-Section-Timely-Turf-Topics-Spring.pdf

 

 

 

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The History Of The Turfgrass Industry In 1947

 

Turfgrass Varieties    Merion

 

 

 

Looking back at the year 1947   

 

 

In 1947, one hundred pounds of foundation seed of the Kentucky bluegrass variety ‘Merion’ ( also called ‘B-27’ ) was produced for testing in fourteen U S states and Canada. 

 

 

 

Background information   

 

 

The United States Golf Association ( USGA ) « Green Section » owned ‘Merion’, and feverishly sought favourable comparisons against « common » Kentucky bluegrass. 

 

( « Common » was known in 1947 as « commercial bluegrass ». ) 

 

Merion’ marked the FIRST generation of the modern « improved varieties » or « improved cultivars » of Kentucky bluegrass. 

 

( Beard, 1973; Penn State, 2007 ( 1B ); Voykin, 1976; Wilson & Grau, 1950. ) 

 

Merion’ proved to be superior to « common » in the following categories    quality and appearance, resistance to heat and drought, resistance to helminthosporium leaf spot, and tolerance to close mowing ( i.e. ¾-inch ). 

 

( Wilson & Grau, 1950. ) 

 

By 1957, ‘Merion’ was in commercial production with seed growers. 

 

This variety has since been discontinued because of its intense disease susceptibility to    fusarium blight, powdery mildew, and rust. 

 

( Wilson & Grau, 1950. ) 

 

Where did ‘Merion’ come from ?!?! 

 

In 1936, Joseph Valentine GAVE the USGA « Green Section » a plug of ‘Merion’. 

 

For a number of years, Mr Valentine had been observing ‘Merion’ as a distinctive patch of grass, adjacent to the seventeenth tee, at the marker, at the Merion Golf Club in Ardmore, Pennsylvania. 

 

Mr Valentine had bestowed an unbelievably lucrative gift to the USGA. 

 

( Penn State, 2007 ( 1B ). ) 

 

Mr Valentine was the renowned « green-keeper » who worked at Merion Golf Club for fifty-four years, until his retirement in 1962. 

 

He was a pioneer in modern golf course maintenance. 

 

Mr Valentine passed away in 1966. 

 

He was born in Italy in 1886 as Giuseppe Valentini. 

 

( Penn State, 2007 ( 1B ); Wilson & Grau, 1950. )

 

Mr Valentine was a visionary. 

 

In 1928, Mr Valentine and his friends asked the President of The Pennsylvania State College for a turfgrass research program. 

 

Consequently, the brilliant Dr H Burton Musser taught the FIRST under-graduate course in turfgrass management in 1932. 

 

Dr Musser was still working only part-time in turf, and Mr Valentine harassed him mercilessly to become the first full-time faculty member to teach and research turf, which happened in 1946. 

 

Dr Musser would go on to develop the most prominent creeping bentgrass variety of all time    Penncross’. 

 

( Penn State, 2007 ( 1A ). ) 

 

One final note on turfgrass varieties in 1947. 

 

The USGA also introduced ‘Collins’ bentgrass ( formerly ‘C-27’ ) in that year. 

 

It was selected in 1937 at the Washington Golf & Country Club. 

 

Collins’ has been discontinued. 

 

( USGA, February 1947. ) 

 

 

 

Explore the following references   

 

 

Beard, 1973. 

Turfgrass : Science & Culture. 

The author is Beard, James B. 

Prentice-Hall Inc : Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. 

 

 

Penn State, 2007 ( 1A ). 

Chapter 1a : Origins of the Program    The People Who Made It Happen. 

From The Pennsylvania State University.  The author is anonymous. 

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Reference-History-Penn-State-Chapter-1a-Origins-Of-The-Program-The-People-Who-Made-It-Happen.pdf

 

 

Penn State, 2007 ( 1B ). 

Chapter 1b : Origins of the Program    The People Who Made It Happen ( Continued ). 

From The Pennsylvania State University.  The author is anonymous. 

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Reference-History-Penn-State-Chapter-1b-Origins-Of-The-Program-The-People-Who-Made-It-Happen.pdf

 

 

Voykin, 1976. 

Ask the Lawn Expert. 

The author is Voykin, Paul N.

MacMillan Publishing Co, Inc : New York. 

 

 

Wilson & Grau, April 1950. 

Merion ( B-27 ) Bluegrass. 

The authors are Wilson, Charles G, & Fred V Grau. 

From the USGA Journal & Turf Management. 

A Publication by the United States Golf Association. 

Volume III.  Number 1. 

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Reference-History-Wilson-Grau-Merion-B-27-Bluegrass.pdf

 

 

USGA, February 1947. 

Favorable Physical Soil Conditions Are Basic To Good Turf. 

From Timely Turf Topics Issued by the United States Golf Association Green Section. 

The author is anonymous. 

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Reference-History-USGA-1947-02-00-Green-Section-Timely-Turf-Topics.pdf

 

 

 

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Proprietary Varieties

 

 

 

Background information   

 

 

After looking at the story of ‘Merion’ Kentucky bluegrass in 1947, further discussion is required. 

 

For over sixty years, the United States Golf Association ( USGA ) has been aggressively acquiring proprietary varieties of turf. 

 

Although, there can be no doubt that the USGA has invested massively in the research of varieties, like ‘Merion’ Kentucky bluegrass, there can be no doubt that it reaped enormous financial benefits through royalty payments. 

 

The acquisition of varieties for profit is not just restricted to the USGA. 

 

Many universities also own varieties. 

 

Read the following 1999 press release from the Penn State University. 

 

Was this public institution hawking its varieties, or providing an unbiased service to turf managers ?!?!   

 

( Penn State, 1999. ) 

 

Pinehurst Resort and Country Club will host the U S Open golf tournament, June 17-20, 1999. 

 

To prepare for this big event, Pinehurst has renovated its famous « Old Course » using turfgrass varieties developed specifically for golf courses by scientists in Penn State’s College of Agricultural Sciences. 

 

Designed by Donald Ross in separate nine-hole projects in 1901 and 1906, Pinehurst No 2 recently reopened after a $850,000 renovation that included re-surfacing the course’s famous greens with ‘Penn G-2’, a heat-resistant variety of bentgrass developed by Dr Joe Duich, professor emeritus of turfgrass science. 

 

The Pinehurst, North Carolina, course previously resurfaced its greens in 1987 using ‘Penncross’, another Penn State turfgrass product developed by Dr Duich. 

 

Penn State turfgrass varieties are used on 90 per cent of all golf courses around the world, according to Dr Thomas Watschke, professor of turfgrass science. 

 

« The new ‘Penn G-2’ putting surface at Pinehurst’s Old Course will perform better in the warmer climate of the Southeast, » Dr Watschke says. 

 

« It also grows straight up, which will give a putted ball a truer roll. » 

 

[ … ] 

 

For more information, contact Thomas Watschke at 000-000-0000. 

 

In the matter of variety ownership, a very important question needs to be asked ! 

 

Are USGA agronomists and university professors to be considered as INDEPENDENT CONSULTANTS who dispense impartial advice, or SALES CONSULTANTS who function no differently than seed representatives ?!?! 

 

Are we too bold to ask this question, which may be hopelessly unanswerable ?!?! 

 

 

 

Explore the following references   

 

 

Duich, 2013. 

Joe Duich Passes.  Royalties From Varieties Generated Over 3 Million Dollars. 

From Golf Course Industry. 

The author is anonymous. 

The date of publication is October 31, 2013. 

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Reference-History-Proprietary-Varieties-Penn-State-U-Royalties-From-Varieties-Generated-Over-3-Million-Dollars-Duich.pdf

 

 

Penn State, 1999. 

Penn State Golf Turf Facts.  Pinehurst Renovates Classic Golf Course Using Penn State Turfgrass. 

From Penn State’s College of Agricultural Sciences. 

The author is anonymous.  The date of publication is June 16, 1999. 

 

Observers thought it was a nice sales touch to add the following statement at the end of this press release    «  For more information, contact Thomas Watschke at 814–863–7644  ».  This whole things looked like an elaborate sales pitch, ending with the name and phone number of the sales representative, who, in this case, happened to be a renowned researcher and educator. 

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Reference-History-Penn-State-Pinehurst-Renovates-Classic-Golf-Course-Using-Penn-State-Turfgrass.pdf

 

 

Seed Research, 2004. 

Seed Research Of Oregon Delivers Royalty Payment To The University Of Arizona. 

From www(dot)turfone(dot)com.  The author is anonymous. 

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Reference-History-Proprietary-Varieties-Seed-Research-of-Oregon-Delivers-Royalty-Payment-To-U-Of-Arizona.pdf

 

 

 

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The History Of The Turfgrass Industry In 1947

 

The Story Of Pickseed

 

 

 

Looking back at the year 1947   

 

 

In 1947, Otto and Marie Pick founded Otto Pick Agricultural Service, which focused on direct sales of improved forage seed to southern Ontario livestock producers, based on the then-relatively-new concept of « permanent pasture ». 

 

( Pickseed, 2013. ) 

 

 

 

Background information   

 

 

Otto Pick’s sons and his wife Marie took over the business following his death in 1959, expanding into turfgrass products and expanding both west and east with a Manitoba seed production unit, a processing plant in Winnipeg, and a distribution site at Saint-Hyacinthe, Quebec. 

 

( Pickseed, 2013. ) 

 

The company later expanded into the United States in the 1970s through Oregon-based Pickseed West, and took over one of Canada’s biggest forage and turfgrass seed businesses, the seed division of Maple Leaf Mills, in 1981.

 

( Pickseed, 2013. ) 

 

Pickseed has operated state-of-the-art research programs for the development of improved proprietary varieties ( cultivars ). 

 

It also has produced pedigree seed in Oregon and across Canada. 

 

The company remains known today as The Pickseed Companies Group, which includes    Mapleseed, Pickseed Canada Inc, Pickseed West and TurfOne ( both based in Tangent, Oregon ), Roberts Seed Company, and Seed Research of Oregon. 

 

Mr Tom Pick continued as President, and Mr Martin Pick, Vice-Chairman. 

 

Mr Martin Pick joined the company in 1958. 

 

In 2002, Pickseed shrewdly entered into a license and supply agreement with Nu-Gro Corporation for residential grass seed products. 

 

( Pickseed, 2002. ) 

 

In 2005, The Pickseed Companies Group announced its acquisition of Seed Research of Oregon from Land O’Lakes, Inc. 

 

This American company has had annual revenues exceeding six billion dollars US. 

 

Pickseed had thoughtfully allowed Seed Research to operate as an independent business unit, which meant that companies like Graham Turf Seeds Ltd and O J Company continued intact as suppliers of varieties like ‘Providence’ and ‘SR-1020’ creeping bentgrasses. 

 

( Pickseed, 2005. ) 

 

In 2013, DLF Pickseed was established when DLF acquired Pickseed Canada and Pickseed USA. 

 

( Pickseed, 2013. ) 

 

 

 

Explore the following references   

 

 

Pickseed, 2005. 

The Pickseed Companies Group Announces The Purchase Of Seed Research Of Oregon. 

From SeedQuest. 

The author is anonymous.  The date of publication is January 5, 2005. 

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Reference-History-Pickseed-Purchase-Of-Seed-Research-Of-Oregon.pdf

 

 

Pickseed, 2002. 

Nu-Gro & Pickseed Sign Supply Agreement. 

From SeedQuest. 

The author is anonymous.  The date of publication is July 3, 2002. 

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Reference-History-Pickseed-Nu-Gro-Pickseed-Sign-Supply-Agreement.pdf

 

 

Pickseed, 2013. 

World’s Top Forage Seed Firm Picks Up Pickseed. 

From AgCanada Farm Business Communications. 

The author is anonymous.  The date of publication is August 29, 2013. 

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Reference-History-Pickseed-World%E2%80%99s-Top-Forage-Seed-Firm-Picks-Up-Pickseed.pdf

 

 

 

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Reference -- History -- World Of Golf -- Bobby Locke Putting 1949 -- Video Recording -- 00 Minute 14 Seconds

 

 

 

 

 

 

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The History Of The Turfgrass Industry In 1947

 

The World Of Golf    Golf Championships

 

 

 

Looking back at the year 1947   

 

 

In 1947, in Canada, Robert Locke won the Canadian Open golf championship at the Scarboro Golf & Country Club in Toronto. 

 

Also in 1947, in the United States, Lew Worsham won the US Open, Jimmy Demaret won the Masters Tournament, and Jim Ferrier won the PGA Championship. 

 

Overseas, Fred Daly won the British Open at the Royal Liverpool Golf Club at Hoylake in Cheshire. 

 

In the United States, Jimmy Demaret was the leading money winner with the US Tour with $27,936. 

 

( Barrett & Hobbs, 1997. ) 

 

 

 

Explore the following reference   

 

 

Barrett & Hobbs, 1997. 

The Ultimate Encyclopedia of Golf. 

Revised & Updated Edition. 

The authors are Barrett, Ted, & Michael Hobbs. 

Carlton Books Limited : Printed & bound in Dubai. 

 

 

 

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Reference -- History -- World Of Golf -- Lew Worsham Wins US Open 1947 -- Video Recording -- 01 Minute 46 Seconds

 

 

 

 

 

 

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The History Of The Turfgrass Industry In 1947

 

The World Of Golf    First Television Broadcast

 

 

 

Looking back at the year 1947   

 

 

In 1947, in Saint Louis, Missouri, the US Open golf tournament was televised LOCALLY for the FIRST TIME by station KSD-TV. 

 

The United States Golf Association ( USGA ) made provisions to sell broadcast rights. 

 

Lew Worsham defeated Sam Snead in a playoff. 

 

Eventually, major Tour events would be broadcast NATIONALLY by 1953 at the Tam O’Shanter World Championship. 

 

Additionally, by 1954, the US Open was televised to a national audience. 

 

( Barkow, 1989; Kelley–TV. ) 

 

 

 

Explore the following references   

 

 

Barkow, 1989. 

The History of the PGA Tour. 

The author is Barkow, Al. 

Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group, Inc : New York. 

 

 

Kelley-tv. 

First TV Appearance. 

From About : Golf.  Golf History FAQ. 

The author is Brent Kelley.  The date of publication is unknown. 

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Reference-History-World-Of-Golf-First-TV-Appearance.pdf

 

 

 

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The History Of The Turfgrass Industry In 1947

 

Regulatory Affairs

 

 

 

Looking back at the year 1947   

 

 

In 1947, the U S Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act ( FIFRA ) was passed. 

 

It superseded the Federal Insecticide Act of 1910. 

 

 

 

Background information   

 

 

Updating Regulations In America 

 

In 1947, there was a need to update regulation because of the dramatic increases in the production and use of chemicals like BHC, DDT, and 2,4-D. 

 

FIFRA was passed to regulate all pest control products, including rodenticides. 

 

It required that all such products be registered with the United States Department of Agriculture ( USDA ), which already had the responsibility since 1910 under the Federal Insecticide Act. 

 

Unfortunately, the USDA was provided with weak powers to require proof that a product was effective. 

 

FIFRA denied the USDA the ability to refuse to register a product. 

 

By 1959, FIFRA was amended to include    defoliants, desiccants, nematicides, and plant growth regulators. 

 

In 1972, FIFRA was further amended to include fines and imprisonment for applicators, dealers, or growers that violated the law. 

 

( BOH; FCH, 2001; USA Meiners & Morriss. ) 

 

 

Increasing Regulations In America 

 

By 1964, in the United States, the rate of registration of turf fungicides reduced considerably. 

 

During the 1950s and until 1964, a large number of fungicides were registered for use in the turf maintenance industry. 

During the 1950s and early 1960s, pest control products were not a major concern, and governments in North America were under limited pressure to tighten their regulation. 

 

Then, the United States Department of Agriculture ( USDA ) lost a fraud case concerning a pest control product. 

 

Consequently, in 1964, USDA was successful in persuading Congress to allow the denial of registrations and cancellations of pest control products for reasons of safety or effectiveness. 

 

The burden of proof was switched from the government to the registrant, as under the original Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act

( FIFRA ). 

 

Despite the new authorities, USDA’s Pesticide Regulation Division was not prepared for the job of dealing with pest control products, as their number and usage expanded. 

 

There were also increasingly vocal demands from the public for the enhanced protection of human health and the environment. 

 

The result was that the responsibility of administering FIFRA was transferred to the Environmental Protection Agency ( EPA ), which was created by the Executive Order of President Nixon on December 2nd, 1970. 

 

EPA became enviro-lunatжc-operated and served as a government-agency-shield for anti-pesticide interests. 

 

( BOH; Couch, 1980. )

 

 

 

Explore the following references   

 

 

BOH. 

Background On History Of Pesticide Use & Regulation In The United States. 

The author is anonymous.  The date of publication is unknown. 

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Reference-History-USA-Background-On-History-Of-Pesticide-Use-Regulation-In-The-United-States.pdf

 

 

Couch, 1980. 

Turfgrass Diseases : Past, Present, Future. 

The author is Couch, Houston B. 

From Advances in Turfgrass Pathology. 

The co-editors are Joyner, B G, and Phillip O Larsen. 

Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc : Duluth, Minnesota. 

 

 

FCH, 2001. 

Farm Chemicals Handbook.  The Gold Standard Reference. 

Meister Publishing Company : Willoughby, Ohio. 

 

 

USA.  Meiners & Morriss. 

DDT : An Issue Of Property Rights. 

From PERC Reports. 

The authors are Meiners, Roger E, & Andrew P Morriss. 

The date of publication is September 1, 2001. 

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Reference-History-USA-DDT-An-Issue-Of-Property-Rights.pdf

 

 

 

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The Hobbits Inspired The Game Of Golf ?

 

 

 

An amusing background story about golf   

 

 

Someone knocked off a head with a club, and it soared into the air, finally falling into a hole. 

 

« The Lord of the Rings » inspired the game of golf ? 

 

This event had nothing whatsoever to do with the turfgrass world, but we could not resist finding an excuse for revealing the following story to the reader   

 

In 1947, J R R ( John Ronald Teuel ) Tolkien submitted to his publisher « The Lord of the Rings    The Fellowship of the Ring ». 

 

Tolkien was also the author of an earlier book called « The Hobbit » in 1938. 

 

The fantasy author created characters that lived in « Middle Earth ». 

 

In his book, he related an anecdote about THE CONNECTION BETWEEN HEADS, HOLES, and GOLF. 

 

It was called « King Golfimbul’s Folly ». 

 

Golfimbul was a goblin-king, and a chieftain of the Orcs. 

 

He led his band in an invasion of the Shire. 

 

He was defeated at the « Battle of Greenfields » by a force led by « Bullroarer » Took. 

 

The battle was only the first of two that were ever fought within the borders of the Shire. 

 

The second was the « Battle of Bywater », the last battle of the « War of the Ring », where Pippin Took also fought. 

 

The character Pippin was featured in the movie trilogy. 

 

During the battle, « Bullroarer » knocked off Golfimbul’s head with a club, and it soared into the air, finally falling into a rabbit hole. 

 

Hence, the Hobbits inspired the game of golf ? 

 

According to Hobbit Folklore, this inspired the game of golf, which takes its name from the Orc    GOLFimbul. 

 

His name appears to have been specifically constructed by Tolkien for this pun. 

 

Tolkien was born in South Africa in 1892; and he died in England in 1973. 

 

( Reynolds, 2003; Wikipedia–Orc. ) 

 

 

 

Explore the following references   

 

 

History.  Golfimbul.  Reynolds, 2003. 

The Lord Of The Rings : The Tale Of A Text. 

From The Tolkien Society.  The author is Reynolds, Pat. 

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Reference-History-Golfimbul-The-Lord-Of-The-Rings-The-Tale-Of-A-Text.pdf

 

 

History.  Golfimbul.  Wikipedia-Orc. 

Middle-Earth Orc Characters. 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 

The author is anonymous. 

The date of publication is December 20, 2018. 

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Reference-History-Golfimbul-Middle-Earth-Orc-Characters.pdf

 

 

 

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1947    Historic & Popular Events

 

Canada

 

 

In 1947, William Lyon Mackenzie King was the ninth Prime Minister of Canada    he was Canada’s longest-serving Prime Minister, with 7,825 days ( 1921-1930 & 1935-1948 ). 

 

A former Prime Minister of Canada Richard Bedford Bennett ( 1930-1935 ), died of a heart attack in his bath. 

 

Petroleum deposits were discovered in the Alberta oil sands. 

 

The world’s most powerful nuclear reactor, the « NRX », went into operation in Chalk River, Ontario. 

 

 

 

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1947    Historic & Popular Events

 

America

 

 

United States’ President Truman signed an Executive Order requiring all federal employees to swear allegiance to their country. 

 

The U S adopted the « National Security Act », which led to the creation of the Central Intelligence Agency ( CIA ). 

 

Howard Hughes’ wooden « Spruce Goose » airplane flew for the FIRST & LAST time. 

 

 

 

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1947    Historic & Popular Events

 

Distasteful Story

 

 

United States’ naval airplanes flying out of a base near Newfoundland regularly used whales as training targets. 

 

 

 

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1947    Historic & Popular Events

 

General Interest

 

 

India was proclaimed independent, & was divided into India & Pakistan    this was the result of Gandhi’s civil disobedience movement. 

 

Princess Elizabeth, heir to the English throne, married Philip Mountbatten. 

 

The Dead Sea Scrolls were discovered. 

 

Thor Heyerdahl sailed from Peru to Polynesia in a balsa raft called the « Kon-Tiki » to prove prehistoric immigration    his voyage ended by crashing into a Polynesian archipelago reef. 

 

 

 

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1947    Historic & Popular Events

 

Books, Radio, & Songs

 

 

« Meet The Press » & « Howdy Doody » premiered on television. 

 

« The Diary Of Anne Frank » was published. 

 

« You Bet Your Life » with Groucho Marx premiered on radio. 

 

« White Christmas », performed by Bing Crosby, was a popular song. 

 

 

 

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1947    Historic & Popular Events

 

Celebrity Passings

 

 

Al Capone ( gangster, from syphilis, 48, born 1899 ). 

 

Henry Ford ( businessman, born 1863 ). 

 

Max Planck ( German physicist, born 1858 ). 

 

« Bugsy » Siegel ( gangster, shot dead ). 

 

 

 

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1947    Historic & Popular Events

 

Celebrity Births

 

 

David Bowie ( rocker, « Major Tom » & « Ziggy Stardust » ). 

 

Stephen Collins ( actor in « 7th Heaven » ). 

 

Billy Crystal ( actor in « Analyze This » ). 

 

Ted Danson ( actor in « Cheers » ). 

 

Richard Dreyfuss ( actor in « Jaws » ). 

 

Ken Dryden ( NHL hockey player & politician ). 

 

Farrah Fawcett ( actor in « Charlie’s Angels » ). 

 

Elton John  ( rock legend, « Crocodile Rock » ). 

 

Lynn Johnston ( cartoonist, « For Better or For Worse » ). 

 

Stephen King ( horror & suspense writer ). 

 

David Letterman ( « Late Night » ). 

 

Arnold Schwarzenegger ( actor in « The Terminator » ). 

 

Steven Spielberg ( director ). 

 

Linda Thorson ( actor in TV’s « The Avengers » ). 

 

Ron Wood ( rock guitarist with « The Rolling Stones » ).

 

 

 

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Explore the following references regarding historic & popular events   

 

 

1947.  Wikipedia-1947. 

Article About The Year 1947. 

From Wikipedia, the free dictionary. 

The author is unknown.  The date of publication December 30, 2018. 

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Reference-History-1947-Wikipedia.pdf

 

 

Canada.  Prime Ministers.  Wikipedia-PMC. 

List Of Prime Ministers Of Canada. 

From Wikipedia, the free dictionary. 

The author is unknown.  The date of publication December 18, 2018. 

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Reference-History-Canada-List-Of-Prime-Ministers-Of-Canada-1.pdf

 

 

CE. 

The Canadian Encyclopedia.  Timeline. 

The author is unknown.  The date of publication is unknown. 

 

 

Grun, 1991. 

The Timetables Of History.  A Horizontal Linkage Of People & Events. 

The New Third Revised Edition. 

The author is Grun, Berrard.  Simon & Shuster : New York. 

 

 

Legrand, 1990. 

Chronicle of Canada. 

The date of publication is 1990. 

The author is Legrand, Jacques ( Conceptor & Coordinator ). 

Chronicle Publications : Montreal. 

 

 

Myers, Jay.  1991. 

The Fitzhenry & Whiteside Book Of Canadian Facts & Dates. 

Revised & Updated by Larry Hoffman & Fraser Sullivan. 

Fitzhenry & Whiteside : Richmond Hill, Ontario. 

 

 

Scope Systems. 

1995-1999.  Worldwide Historic Dates & Events. 

The author is anonymous.  The date of publication is 1995-1999. 

 

 

 

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Take A LOOK AT Career Management, Golf Course Maintenance, Green Alternatives, Lawn Care Maintenance, Summer Stress, The History Of Turfgrass Maintenance, Tree & Shrub Maintenance, Turfgrass Pests, & Turfgrass Species

 

To take A LOOK AT these issues, you need facts !

 

Read    PESTICIDE TRUTHS

 

Watch    UNCLE ADOLPH

 

Listen To    NORAHG

 

Learn From    FORCE OF NATURE

 

 

 

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WE SPEAK THE WHOLE TRUTH WHEN WE TAKE A LOOK AT    THE HISTORY OF THE TURFGRASS INDUSTRY FROM AN INDEPENDENT PERSPECTIVE ! 

 

We are the National Organization Responding Against HUJE that conspire to destroy the Green space & other industries ( NORAHG ). 

 

NORAHG is a non-profit & independent organization that reports on the work of several highly-rated leading experts who have recognized expertise, training, & backgrounds in matters concerning pest control products, & who promote environmental realism & pesticide truths. 

 

NORAHG produces A Look At , a series of reports & blogs providing TECHNICAL INFORMATION on issues such as Career Management, Golf Course Maintenance, Green Alternatives, Lawn Care Maintenance, Summer Stress, Tree & Shrub Maintenance, Turfgrass Pests, & Turfgrass Species.

 

A Look At is destined for the green space industry, nation-wide across Canada, the United States, & overseas, & can be found on The Pesticide Truths Web-Site      http://pesticidetruths.com/  

 

A Look At is committed to SOUND SCIENCE, as well as ground breaking original reporting that informs, entertains, & creates real change.

 

All information, excerpts, & pictures contained in A Look At were retrieved from the Internet, & may be considered in the public domain. 

 

The information presented in A Look At is for preliminary planning. 

 

Before making a final decision, the turf manager is expected to obtain trusted expert advice from extension specialists, local distributors and/or agronomists. 

 

All decisions must take into account the prevailing growing conditions, the time of year, & the established management practices. 

 

All products mentioned in A Look At should be used in accordance with the manufacturer’s directions, & according to provincial, state, or federal law. 

 

For the official advantages, benefits, features, precautions, & restrictions concerning any product, the turf manager must rely only on the information furnished by the manufacturer. 

 

The mention of trade names does not constitute a guarantee or a warranty.

 

NORAHG also produces Force Of Nature, which dares to defy the pesticide-hating fanatжcs by exploring the whole truth from an independent perspective on The Pesticide Truths Web-Site      http://pesticidetruths.com/  

 

A Look At , Force Of Nature, & their various incarnations, was the brain-child of William H Gathercole ( now retired ) & his colleagues. 

 

Here is a brief summary of Mr Gathercole’s career     

 

FIELDS OF UNIVERSITY STUDY         Crop, Horticulture, & Turfgrass Sciences      Mathematics & Physics

 

ALMA MATERS         McGill University      University of Guelph      the first person ever to obtain bachelors of science degrees & contribute directly to both the professional lawn care & golf maintenance industries. 

 

EXPERTISE         turf & ornamental maintenance & troubleshooting      history of the green space industry      sales & distribution of seeds, chemicals, fertilizers, & equipment      fertilizer manufacturing & distribution      environmental issues & anti-pesticide terrжrism. 

 

NOTABLE ACTIVITIES         worked in virtually all aspects of the green space industry, including golf maintenance, professional lawn care, tree & shrub care, distribution, environmental compliance, government negotiations, public affairs, & workplace safety      the supervisor, consultant, &, programmer for the successful execution of hundreds-of-thousands of management operations in the golf course & urban landscape, as well as millions of pest control applications      the advisor, instructor, & trainer for thousands of turf & ornamental managers & technicians      the pesticide certification instructor for thousands of industry workers      a founder of the modern professional lawn care industry      the prolific writer for industry publications, reports, & blogs      the first to confirm the invasion of European Chafer insects in both the Montreal region & the Vancouver / Fraser Valley region      with Dr Peter Dernoeden, the first to confirm the presence of Take All Patch as a disease of turf in Eastern Canada      with Dr David Shetlar, the first to confirm the presence of Kentucky Bluegrass Scale as an insect pest in south-western Ontario, & later, in the Montreal & Vancouver regions. 

 

SPECIAL CONTRIBUTIONS         the creator of the Pesticide Ban Exception Status that allowed the golf industry to avoid being subjected to anti-pesticide prohibition for a generation      the creator of the signs that are now used for posting after application      the co-founder of annual winter convention for Quebec golf course superintendents      the founder of the first ever Turf Summit with guest Dr Jack L Eggens   https://wp.me/p1jq40-7dT      the major influence in the decision by Canadian Cancer Society to stop selling-for-profit fresh pesticide-treated daffodils   https://wp.me/P1jq40-1OW      the only true reliable witness of the events of anti-pesticide prohibition in the town of Hudson, Quebec   https://wp.me/p1jq40-asu      the founder ( now retired ) of A Look At & Force Of Nature reports & blogs. 

 

NOTABLE AWARD         the first man-of-the-year for contributions leading to the successful founding of the Quebec professional lawn care trade association, which served as a beach-head against anti-pesticide activists in the 1980s & 1990s. 

 

LEGACIES      Mr Gathercole & his colleagues         designed & implemented strategies that reined anti-pesticide activists & provided peace & prosperity for the entire modern green space industry for a generation      orchestrated legal action against anti-pesticide activists in the town of Hudson, Quebec      launched the largest founding professional lawn care business in the nation      quadrupled the business revenues of one of the largest suppliers in the nation. 

 

Mr Gathercole is now retired, although his name continues to appear as the founder of A Look At & Force Of Nature reports & blogs. 

 

We dare to defy by exploring the whole truth from an independent perspective on The Pesticide Truths Web-Site      http://pesticidetruths.com/  

 

We are the National Organization Responding Against HUJE that conspire to destroy the Green space and other industries ( NORAHG ). 

 

If you wish to receive free reports & blogs on issues that concern you, please contact us at      force.of.de.nature@gmail.com   WILLIAM H GATHERCOLE AND NORAH G  

 

 

 

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Background Information

 

  FACTS About A Look At 

 

 

  FACT A Look At    Is A Series Of Reports & Blogs Providing Practical Information On Issues For The Green Space Industry

 

  FACT This Is What We Do.  Don’t Thank Us.  It’s A Public Service.  And We Are Glad To Do It. 

 

 

 

Main Pages

 

 

A Look At    CAREER MANAGEMENT LIBRARY OF REPORTS ( Web-Page )

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/toc/a-look-at-career-management/

 

 

A Look At    THE HISTORY OF THE TURFGRASS INDUSTRY ( Web-Page )

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/the-history-of-the-turfgrass-industry/

 

 

A Look At    PESTICIDE LABELS LIBRARY OF DOCUMENTS ( Web-Page )

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/toc/labels/

 

 

A Look At    TURF, ORNAMENTALS, MAINTENANCE, & ENVIRONMENT 2016 LIBRARY OF REFERENCES ( Blog )

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/2016/05/05/a-look-at-the-complete-library-of-references-2016-turf-ornamentals-maintenance-environment-2016-05-05/

 

 

A Look At    TURF, ORNAMENTALS, MAINTENANCE, & ENVIRONMENT LIBRARY OF REFERENCES ( Web-Page )

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/toc/a-look-at-references-turf-ornamentals/

 

 

A Look At    TURF, ORNAMENTALS, MAINTENANCE, & ENVIRONMENT LIBRARY OF REPORTS ( Web-Page )

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/toc/a-look-at-reports/

 

 

A Look At    TURFGRASS SEEDS LIBRARY OF JACKLIN SEEDS NEWSLETTERS ( Web-Page )

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/toc/a-look-at-references-seed-jacklin-newsletter/

 

 

A Look At    TURF, ORNAMENTALS, MAINTENANCE, & ENVIRONMENT LIBRARY OF SLIDE SHOWS ( Web-Page )

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/toc/a-look-at-slide-shows/

 

 

A Look At    TURFGRASS DISEASES LIBRARY OF REFERENCES ( Web-Page )

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/toc/a-look-at-references-turf-diseases/

 

 

A Look At    WEED PESTS LIBRARY OF DOW AGROSCIENCES NEWSLETTERS ( Web-Page )

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/toc/a-look-at-references-weed-watch-dow-agrosciences/

 

 

 

Posters

 

 

A Look At    POSTERS BENEFITS OF URBAN TREES ( Blog & Posters )

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/2017/10/15/poster-benefits-of-urban-trees-2017-10-00/

 

 

A Look At    POSTERS COMMUNITY BENEFITS OF GOLF ( Blog & Posters )

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/2017/06/14/posters-community-benefits-of-golf-striking-back-against-pesticide-bans-croplife-canada-2017-00-00/

 

 

A Look At    POSTERS THE ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS OF TURFGRASS ( Blog & Poster ) 

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/2015/08/21/the-environmental-benefits-of-turfgrass-new-poster-striking-back-against-pesticide

 

 

A Look At    POSTERS KEEP OUR COMMUNITIES BEAUTIFUL & SAFE — DO NOT BAN COSMETIC PESTICIDES ( Blog & Posters )

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/2012/10/30/posters-there-are-real-trends-against-pesticide-bans-keep-our-communities-beautiful-safe-do-not-ban-cosmetic-pesticides-2012-10-30/

 

 

A Look At    POSTERS CANADA’S PROMINENT ANTI-PESTICIDE TERRЖRISTS ( Blog & Posters )

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/toc/culprits-canadas-prominent-anti-pesticide-terrorists/

 

 

 

Re-Entry Intervals

 

 

UPDATE RE-ENTRY INTERVALS ( Blog )

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/2017/10/23/update-re-entry-intervals-label-statements-for-applications-on-turfgrasses-2017-10-23/

 

 

 

More Slide Shows

 

 

A Look At    SLIDE SHOW TURF, ORNAMENTALS, MAINTENANCE, & ENVIRONMENT LIBRARY OF SLIDE SHOWS ( Web-Page )

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/toc/a-look-at-slide-shows/

 

 

A Look At    SLIDE SHOW SAFETY & ENVIRONMENT FACTS — PEST CONTROL PRODUCTS ARE SAFE FOR KIDS ( Blog )

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/2016/08/30/a-look-at-safety-environment-facts-pest-control-products-are-safe-for-kids-slide-show-2016-08-31/

 

 

A Look At    SLIDE SHOWS 2016 LIBRARY OF PRESENTATIONSPart 1 Of 3 ( Blog )

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/2016/03/01/a-look-at-slide-shows-the-complete-library-of-slide-shows-2016-2016-03-01/

 

 

A Look At    SLIDE SHOWS 2016 LIBRARY OF PRESENTATIONSPart 2 Of 3 ( Blog )

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/2016/04/04/a-look-at-the-complete-library-of-slide-shows-2016-part-2-of-3/

 

 

 

The Wisdom Of Mr Art C Drysdale

 

 

DRYSDALE PROFILE & REPORTS ( Web-Page )

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/toc/the-wisdom-of-art-c-drysdale-2/

 

 

DRYSDALE THE LIBRARY OF REPORTS, BLOGS, & REFERENCES ( Web-Page )

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/drysdale-library-of-reports-blogs-references/

 

 

DRYSDALE AUDIO RECORDINGS — PART 1 — AUTUMN to MISCELLANEOUS ( Web-Page )

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/toc/the-wisdom-of-art-c-drysdale-3/

 

 

DRYSDALE AUDIO RECORDINGS — PART 2 — ORCHIDS to WINTER ( Web-Page )

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/toc/the-wisdom-of-art-c-drysdale-4/

 

 

DRYSDALE RE-DIRECT LINKS TO REPORTS & AUDIO RECORDINGS ( Web-Page )

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/toc/the-wisdom-of-art-c-drysdale/

 

 

 

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