Pruning Trees – No Flush Cuts, Gutting, or Lifting – 2013 01 06

 

A Look At (2)

 

 

 

 

A Look At Ornamental

 

Plant Management

 

 

Pruning Trees

 

 

No Flush Cuts,

 

Gutting, or Lifting

 

 

 

 

January 6th, 2013

 

Howard Garrett

 

Media Release    Newsletter

 

Selected And Adapted Excerpts

 

 

 

 

Pruning Trees    No Flush Cuts, Gutting, or Lifting

 

Introduction

 

 

Is it time to thin trees and cut off the lower limbs ?

 

The answers to these common pruning questions might surprise you.

 

There seems to be an abundance of curious tree pruning advice still around.

 

Let’s try to straighten it out.

 

It IS a good time to prune.

 

( See next segment. )

 

However, pruning too much is the most common pruning mistake.

 

FEW TREES NEED MAJOR PRUNING EVERY YEAR.

 

Other than some fruit trees, FEW TREES NEED ANNUAL THINNING.

 

Unless lower limbs are a physical interference, THEY SHOULD BE LEFT ON THE TREE.

 

TREES CAN BE SEVERELY DAMAGED OR EVEN KILLED BY REMOVING TOO MANY LOWER LIMBS.

 

Plus it looks bad. 

 

 

 

 

 

A Look At (3)

 

 

 

 

 

A Look At (4)

 

 

 

 

 

Pruning Trees    No Flush Cuts, Gutting, or Lifting

 

Timing

 

 

Landscape trees can be pruned AT ANY TIME OF THE YEAR, but THE BEST TIME IS FROM FALL TO LATE WINTER.

 

Fruit trees should be pruned from MID-WINTER UP UNTIL BUD BREAK.

 

Certain fruit trees, like peach trees, should only be pruned JUST BEFORE BUD BREAK because pruning induces bud break and flowering.

 

For fruit trees like peach, early flowers and late freezes spell no fruit.

 

 

 

Pruning Trees    No Flush Cuts, Gutting, or Lifting

 

Amount Of Pruning

 

 

Pruning trees is part science and part art.

 

Don’t try to change the character and overall, long-term shape of a tree, and don’t remove lower limbs to raise the canopy.

 

Low-growing limbs exist for a reason.

 

It’s very unnatural to strip tree trunks bare.

 

If you think that looks good, think again.

 

Remove dead, diseased, broken or damaged limbs, and the weakest of crossing limbs.

 

Remove limbs that grow toward the center of the tree and limbs that are dangerous or physically interfere with buildings or activities.

 

It is very important to remove one of the co-dominant upward shoots to leave strong growth without « V » shaped crotches.

 

Thinning to eliminate a certain percentage of the foliage is usually a MISTAKE.

 

Heavy thinning of a tree’s canopy throws the plant out of balance, inviting wind and ice storm damage.

 

The resulting stress attracts diseases and insect pests.

 

Gutting ( heavy interior pruning ) is NEVER APPROPRIATE.

 

 

 

Pruning Trees    No Flush Cuts, Gutting, or Lifting

 

Pruning Cuts

 

 

Pruning cuts should be made with SHARP TOOLS.

 

Hand tools such as bow saws, Japanese pruning saws, loppers, and pole pruners are good for small limbs.

 

Chain saws can be used for larger limbs, but only with great care and a thorough understanding of the equipment.

 

FLUSH CUTS SHOULD NEVER BE MADE.

 

Cuts leaving 1/16-inch stubs are also BAD.

 

Pruning cuts should be made AT THE POINT WHERE THE BRANCH MEETS THE TRUNK, just outside the branch collar.

 

The branch collar stub can be as small as 1/8-1/4-inch on small limbs, but can be several inches to as much as a foot or more wide on large limbs.

 

It will also be wider at the bottom of the limb than at the top.

 

Cuts made at the right place leave a round wound.

 

Improper flush cuts leave oval cuts and CAUSE DECAY AND CAVITIES that form in the trunk long term.

 

It’s scientific fact that CUTTING INTO OR REMOVING BRANCH COLLARS CAUSE PROBLEMS LIKE DECAY AND CAVITIES.

 

Flush cuts encourage DECAY at the top and bottom of the cuts.

 

They also DESTROY the natural protective zone between the trunk and the branch and can cause several other SERIOUS TREE PROBLEMS, including CANKERS, CRACKS, DECAYED WOOD, DISCOLORED WOOD, RESIN POCKETS,

SLOWED GROWTH OF NEW WOOD, SUN INJURY, and WET WOOD,

 

Proper cuts are round, are smaller, and will heal much faster.

 

Peach, plum, apricot, and other fruit trees, are particularly SENSITIVE TO FLUSH CUTS.

 

Many fruit tree insects and disease problems are related to improper pruning cuts.

 

Long branch STUBS can also be DETRIMENTAL and should be avoided.

 

However, it is always better to err on the side of STUBS being too long rather than too short. 

 

 

 

 

 

A Look At (5)

 

 

 

 

A Look At (6)

 

 

 

 

 

Pruning Trees    No Flush Cuts, Gutting, or Lifting

 

Wound Dressings

 

 

Research by Alex Shigo, Carl Whitcomb, and the U.S. Forest Service, has shown that PRUNING PAINT AND WOUND DRESSINGS HAVE NO BENEFIT, and can be harmful by slowing the healing process.

 

Healthy tissue needed for callus formation can be DAMAGED or KILLED by pruning paint or dressings.

 

Trees have defense cells, much like white blood cells in mammals.

 

These lignin cells are produced on the backside of a wound to naturally prevent diseases from entering fresh cuts.

 

Just as a cut finger heals faster when exposed to the air, so does a tree wound.

 

 

 

Pruning Trees    No Flush Cuts, Gutting, or Lifting

 

Cavities

 

 

Cavities are often CAUSED BY FLUSH CUTS.

 

Cavities in trees are voids where fungi have rotted healthy material.

 

They are usually the result of physical injury.

 

Removing only the decayed material is the remedy.

 

Fillers such as concrete and foam are at best cosmetic and NOT RECOMMENDED.

 

When removing decayed matter from cavities, be careful not to cut or punch into the living tissue.

 

Injuries to healthy tissue can introduce further decay into the healthy wood.

 

When cavities hold water, drain tubes are sometimes inserted to release water.

 

This procedure is a BAD IDEA.

 

Drain tubes puncture the protective barriers between the rotted and healthy wood and allow decay to expand.

 

 

 

Pruning Trees    No Flush Cuts, Gutting, or Lifting

 

Cabling

 

 

Weak crotches between limbs can sometimes be stopped from splitting by installing cables horizontal to the ground so the natural movement of the tree is not completely stopped.

 

Cabling used to hold up low growing limbs is POOR TREE CARE and A WASTE OF MONEY.

 

Cabling can be VERY DANGEROUS, and should only be done by professional arborists.

 

Again, removing half of the « V » shaped vertical growth is a BETTER WAY to prevent the splitting and have a healthier tree.

 

 

 

Pruning Trees    No Flush Cuts, Gutting, or Lifting

 

Examples of BAD PRUNING

 

 

Many tree pruners are gutters ( i.e. heavy thinning ) and lifters ( i.e. cutting off lower limbs ).

 

Some home-owners are too    especially men.

 

It’s genetic, manly stuff to cut up and hack up stuff.

 

Let’s talk about the good, the bad, and the ugly pruning techniques.

 

To trim a tree properly, stand back and look at the overall form of the plant.

 

Do this before you make a single cut.

 

The overall shape and character that you see before you start is what you should still see when the pruning is finished.

 

Remember that EVERY CUT HURTS THE TREE.

 

 

 

Pruning Trees    No Flush Cuts, Gutting, or Lifting

 

Thinning ( Gutting ) Trees

 

 

You’ve heard that thinning trees is good for them, but IT IS NOT.

 

Thinning may be good for the grass and other plantings under the tree, but it is NOT GOOD FOR THE TREE.

 

Heavy thinning is called gutting and is SEVERELY DAMAGING.

 

 

 

Pruning Trees    No Flush Cuts, Gutting, or Lifting

 

Cutting Off Lower Limbs ( Lifting )

 

 

Cutting off lower limbs, lifting, is in the same category.

 

If limbs are in the way    hanging too low over the driveway or hitting you between the eyes or scraping your head when you mow the lawn, cut them off    just don’t be fooled that it is good for the tree.

 

It is NOT.

 

It only benefits you.

 

NO PRUNING PAINT either.

 

Nature doesn’t use it so why should we ?

 

 

 

Pruning Trees    No Flush Cuts, Gutting, or Lifting

 

Conclusion

 

 

As a final note, the tree trimmings resulting from pruning should not be hauled away.

 

The large pieces should be used for firewood, and the limbs and foliage should be shredded and used as mulch under trees or mixed into a compost pile.

 

This is also excellent mulch for walkways and in the landscape and vegetable garden. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NORAHG is National Organization Responding Against HUJE that seek to harm the Green Space Industry.

 

NORAHG is a NATIONAL NON PROFIT NON PARTISAN organization dedicated to reporting the work of RESPECTED and HIGHLY RATED EXPERTS who promote PESTICIDE REALISM and PESTICIDE TRUTHS.

 

Scientific research PROVES that pest control products cause NO HARM and can be USED SAFELY.

 

NORAHG produces A LOOK AT, a series of reports providing TECHNICAL INFORMATION on issues such as Career Management, Golf Course Maintenance, Green Alternatives, Summer Stress, Turfgrass Pests, and Turfgrass Species.

 

A LOOK AT is destined for the green space industry, nationwide across Canada, the United States, and overseas.

 

A LOOK AT is committed to SOUND SCIENCE, as well as ground breaking original reporting that informs, entertains, and creates real change.

 

NORAHG also produces FORCE OF NATURE, reports that present THE WHOLE TRUTH FROM AN INDEPENDENT PERSPECTIVE about environmental issues, including anti pesticide terrorism.

 

The information presented in A LOOK AT is for preliminary planning only. 

 

Before making a final decision, the turf manager is expected to obtain trusted expert advice from extension specialists, local distributors and/or agronomists. 

 

All decisions must take into account the prevailing growing conditions, the time of year, and the established management practices. 

 

All products mentioned in A LOOK AT should be used in accordance with the manufacturer’s directions, and according to provincial, state, or federal law. 

 

For the official advantages, benefits, features, precautions, and restrictions concerning any product, the turf manager must rely only on the information furnished by the manufacturer. 

 

The mention of trade names does not constitute a guarantee or a warranty.

 

A LOOK AT, and their various incarnations, was the brainchild of William H. Gathercole (now retired) and his colleagues. 

 

Mr. Gathercole is now retired, although his name continues to appear as founder of A LOOK AT and FORCE OF NATURE reports.

 

 

 

 

 

A Look At (7)

 

 

 

A Look At (8)

 

 

 

A Look At (9)

 

 

 

A Look At (10)

 

 

 

A Look At (11)

 

 

 

A Look At (12)

 

 

 

A Look At (13)

 

 

 

A Look At (14)

 

 

 

 

For the original copy of this Force Of Nature Report, go to the following link 

 

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Force-Of-Nature-A-Look-At-Ornamental-Plants-Pruning-Trees-No-Flush-Cuts-Gutting-or-Lifting-Garrett-2013-01-06-pdf-300-dpi.pdf

 

 

 

 

NORAHG has archived more information about A LOOK AT on The Pesticide Truths Web-Site 

 

 

A LOOK AT    CAREER MANAGEMENT ( Web-Page )

 

http://wp.me/P1jq40-2Ak

 

 

A LOOK AT    REFERENCES & SLIDE SHOWS    TURF, ORNAMENTALS, MAINTENANCE, & ENVIRONMENT ( Web-Page )

 

http://wp.me/P1jq40-2fD

 

 

A LOOK AT    REPORTS    TURF, ORNAMENTALS, & MAINTENANCE ( Web-Page )

 

http://wp.me/P1jq40-1Ki

 

 

 

 

Here are previous reports, just in case you missed them 

 

 

Bird Pest Management

 

TURF BIRD PESTS — CANADA GEESE — OPERATION SCARECROW — NOVA SCOTIA ( Report )

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Force-Of-Nature-A-Look-At-Turf-Bird-Pests-Canada-Geese-Operation-Scarecrow-Nova-Scotia-pdf-300-dpi.pdf

 

 

Creeping Bentgrass

 

HOW MUCH NITROGEN DO GOLF GRASSES NEED ( Report )

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Force-Of-Nature-A-Look-At-Creeping-Bentgrass-2012-10-00-How-Much-Nitrogen-Do-Golf-Grasses-Need-Jacklin-Seed-pdf.pdf

 

FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO FASTER GERMINATION ( Report )

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Force-Of-Nature-A-Look-At-Creeping-Bentgrass-Factors-Contributing-To-Faster-Germination-2009-12-00-pdf-300-dpi1.pdf

 

PROPERTIES & MAINTENANCE STANDARDS ( Report )

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Force-Of-Nature-A-Look-At-Creeping-Bentgrass-Properties-Maintenance-Standards-2011-05-13-pdf-300-dpi.pdf

 

VARIETIES — PENN SERIES ( Report )

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Force-Of-Nature-A-Look-At-Creeping-Bentgrass-Varieties-Penn-Series-2011-06-04-pdf-300-dpi.pdf

 

 

Golf Course Maintenance

 

HOW MUCH NITROGEN DO GOLF GRASSES NEED ( Report )

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Force-Of-Nature-A-Look-At-Golf-Course-Maintenance-How-Much-Nitrogen-Do-Golf-Grasses-Need-2012-10-00-Jacklin-Seed-pdf.pdf

 

REDUCING COSTS ( Report )

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Force-Of-Nature-A-Look-At-Golf-Course-Maintenance-2011-05-21-Reducing-Costs-Kansas-State-University-pdf-300-dpi.pdf

 

WISPY FINE-LEAVED FESCUE ROUGH ( Report )

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Force-Of-Nature-A-Look-At-Golf-Course-Maintenance-2011-07-01-Wispy-Fine-Leaved-Fescue-Rough-USGA-pdf-300-dpi.pdf

 

TURF CULTIVATION ( I.E. AERATION ) ( Report )

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Force-Of-Nature-A-Look-At-Golf-Course-Maintenance-2011-09-15-Turf-Cultivation-i.e.-Aeration-pdf-300-dpi.pdf

 

 

Soil Science

 

HOW MUCH NITROGEN DO GOLF GRASSES NEED ( Report )

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Force-Of-Nature-A-Look-At-Soil-Science-How-Much-Nitrogen-Do-Golf-Grasses-Need-2012-10-00-Jacklin-Seed-pdf-300-dpi.pdf

 

LATE-FALL NITROGEN FERTILIZATION ( Report )

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Force-Of-Nature-A-Look-At-Soil-Science-Late-Fall-Nitrogen-Fertilization-University-of-Nebraska-2011-09-29-pdf-300-dpi.pdf

 

 

TURF CULTIVATION ( I.E. AERATION ) ( Report )

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Force-Of-Nature-A-Look-At-Soil-Science-Turf-Cultivation-i.e.-Aeration-2011-09-15-Golf-Maintenance-pdf-300-dpi.pdf

 

 

Green Alternative Pesticides

 

CORN GLUTEN MEAL HERBICIDE ( Report )

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Force-Of-Nature-A-Look-At-Green-Alternative-Corn-Gluten-Meal-Herbicide-2010-06-07-pdf-300-dpi.pdf

 

GREEN ALTERNATIVE    CORN GLUTEN MEAL HERBICIDE    DISMAL FAILURE ! ( Web-Page )

 

http://wp.me/P1jq40-2mU

 

FIESTA HERBICIDE ( Report )

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Force-Of-Nature-A-Look-At-Green-Alternative-Fiesta-Herbicide-2010-04-25-pdf-300-dpi.pdf

 

GREEN ALTERNATIVE    FIESTA HERBICIDE ( FeHEDTA )    DISMAL FAILURE ! ( Web-Page )

 

http://wp.me/P1jq40-1JQ

 

 

GREEN ALTERNATIVE    FIESTA HERBICIDE ( FeHEDTA )    THE PESTICIDE TRUTHS REPORTS ( Web-Page )

 

http://wp.me/P1jq40-41t

 

NEMATODE INSECTICIDE — PART 1 ( Report )

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Force-Of-Nature-A-Look-At-Green-Alternative-Nematode-Insecticide-2010-01-17-Critical-Issues-Part-1-pdf-150-dpi.pdf

 

NEMATODE INSECTICIDE — PART 2 ( Report )

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Force-Of-Nature-A-Look-At-Green-Alternative-Nematode-Insecticide-2010-01-17-Critical-Issues-Part-2-pdf-150-dpi.pdf

 

GREEN ALTERNATIVE    NEMATODE INSECTICIDES    MARGINALLY EFFECTIVE    BETTER TO DO NOTHING ( Web-Page )

 

http://wp.me/P1jq40-5ai

 

ORGANO-SOL HERBICIDE — CHARACTERISTICS & DESCRIPTION ( Report )

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Force-Of-Nature-A-Look-At-Green-Alternative-Organo-Sol-Herbicide-2010-08-29-Characteristics-Description-pdf.pdf

 

ORGANO-SOL HERBICIDE — ACTIVE INGREDIENTS ( Report )

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Force-Of-Nature-A-Look-At-Green-Alternative-Organo-Sol-Herbicide-2010-09-01-Active-Ingredients-pdf-300-dpi.pdf

 

ORGANO-SOL HERBICIDE — MODE OF ACTION — EFFICACY ( Report )

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Force-Of-Nature-A-Look-At-Green-Alternative-Organo-Sol-Herbicide-2010-09-08-Mode-of-Action-Efficacy-pdf.pdf

 

SCLEROTINIA MINOR HERBICIDE ( Report )

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Force-Of-Nature-A-Look-At-Green-Alternative-Sclerotinia-minor-Herbicide-2007-07-27-Health-Canada-Report-pdf.pdf

 

 

Kentucky Bluegrass

 

PROPERTIES & MAINTENANCE STANDARDS ( Report )

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Force-Of-Nature-A-Look-At-Kentucky-Bluegrass-Properties-Maintenance-Standards-pdf-300-dpi.pdf

 

 

VARIETIES — SNOW MOLD RESISTANCE RATINGS — ORIGINAL ( Report )

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Force-Of-Nature-A-Look-At-Kentucky-Bluegrass-Varieties-Snow-Mold-Resistance-Ratings-ORIGINAL-pdf.pdf

 

VARIETIES — SNOW MOLD RESISTANCE RATINGS ( Report )

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Force-Of-Nature-A-Look-At-Kentucky-Bluegrass-Varieties-Snow-Mold-Resistance-Ratings-pdf-300-dpi.pdf

 

 

Ornamental Plants    Diseases

 

CEDAR APPLE RUST ( Report )

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Force-Of-Nature-A-Look-At-Ornamental-Plant-Disease-Cedar-Apple-Rust-Kansas-State-U-2012-03-23-pdf-300-dpi.pdf

 

 

Ornamental Plants    Trees & Shrubs

 

TAXUS — WARNING — KILLER PLANTS ( Report )

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Force-Of-Nature-A-Look-At-Ornamental-Plants-Taxus-WARNING-Killer-Plants-2011-07-07-pdf-300-dpi.pdf

 

 

Seed    Turfgrass Seed

 

HOW MUCH NITROGEN DO GOLF GRASSES NEED  ( Report )

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Force-Of-Nature-A-Look-At-Seed-How-Much-Nitrogen-Do-Golf-Grasses-Need-2012-10-00-Jacklin-Seed-pdf-300-dpi.pdf

 

FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO FASTER GERMINATION IN CREEPING BENTGRASS ( Report )

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Force-Of-Nature-A-Look-At-Seed-2009-12-00-Factors-Contributing-To-Faster-Germination-In-Creeping-Bentgrass-pdf-300-dpi1.pdf

 

HOW LONG GRASS WILL TAKE TO GERMINATE IN THE SPRING ( Report )

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Force-Of-Nature-A-Look-At-Seed-2009-11-00-How-Long-Grass-Will-Take-To-Germinate-In-The-Spring-pdf-300-dpi.pdf

 

 

 

 

NORAHG has archived more information on The Pesticide Truths Web-Site 

 

 

THE PESTICIDE TRUTHS WEB-SITE

 

http://pesticidetruths.com/

 

 

PESTICIDE BANS ARE A FARCE ( Report )

 

http://wp.me/p1jq40-4mS

 

 

REAL TRENDS AGAINST PESTICIDE BANS ( Web-Page )

 

http://wp.me/P1jq40-1JO

 

 

CARNAGE CAUSED BY CATASTROPHIC ANTI-PESTICIDE PROHIBITION    MAIN WEB-PAGE

 

http://wp.me/P1jq40-5On

 

 

CARNAGE CAUSED BY CATASTROPHIC ANTI-PESTICIDE PROHIBITION    RE-DIRECT LINKS ( Web-Page )

 

http://wp.me/P1jq40-26P

 

 

GOLF DESTRUCTION    GOLF IS NEXT ( Web-Page )

 

http://wp.me/P1jq40-4FC

 

 

WHITE PAPER    THE MYTHS ABOUT BANNING PESTICIDES ( Part 2 )    LEADING SCIENTIFIC HEALTH AND POLICY EXPERTS

 

http://wp.me/p1jq40-5DD

 

 

COMPLAINT CHANNELS    COMPLAIN ABOUT THE ANTI-PESTICIDE LUNATICS ( Web-Page )

 

http://wp.me/P1jq40-1PE

 

 

THE COMPLETE LIBRARY OF REPORTS & REFERENCES ( Web-Page )

 

http://wp.me/P1jq40-2rr

 

 

PESTICIDE TRUTHS REPORTS ( Web-Page )

 

http://wp.me/P1jq40-53G

 

 

 

 

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