Dying of Cancer – Looking to blame Lawn Pesticides – LOOK HERE – Beyond Pesticides has the proof – Information Services: Pesticide-Induced Diseases Database: Cancer

Pesticide-Induced Diseases: Cancer

Bladder CancerBone CancerBrain CancerCervical CancerColorecatal CancerEye CancerGallbladder CancerKidney/Renal CancerLarynx CancerLeukemiaLip CancerLiver/Hepatic CancerLung CancerLymphomaMelanomaMouth CancerMultiple MyelomaNeuroblastomaOesophageal CancerOvarian CancerPancreatic CancerProstate CancerSoft Tissue SarcomaStomach CancerSinonasal Cancer ● Testicular CancerThyroid CancerUteran Cancer

The link between pesticides and cancer has long been a concern. While agriculture has traditionally been tied to pesticide-related illnesses, 19 of 30 commonly used lawn pesticides and 28 of 40 commonly used school pesticides are linked to cancer. Even with the growing body of evidence linking environmental exposures to cancer in recent years, a report released May 6, 2010 by the President’s Cancer Panel finds that the true burden of environmentally-induced cancer is greatly underestimated. The Panel’s report, Reducing Environmental Cancer Risk: What We Can Do Now, concludes that while environmental exposure is not a new front on the war on cancer, the grievous harm from carcinogenic chemical use has not been addressed adequately by the nation’s cancer program.

Bladder Cancer

Bone Cancer

  • Geographical differences of cancer incidence in Costa Rica in relation to environmental and occupational pesticide exposure
    A study in Costa Rica finds heavy pesticide use in rural counties is associated with an increase risk for bone cancer in males (OR 1.81).
    [Wesseling, C., et al. 1999. International Journal of Epidemiology 28:365-374.
  • Occupational factors and risk of adult bone sarcomas: a multicentric case-control study in Europe
    A nuliticentric case-control study in 7 European countries finds that individuals that have ever used pesticides have over a two-fold increase risk of bone sarcoma (OR 2.33), yet the study finds that duration of use of pesticides showend no increase trend in the risk.
    [Merietti, F., et al. 2006. Int J Cancer 118(3):721-727.]
  • Risk of childhood cancers associated with residence in agriculturally intense areas in the United States
    An ecological study analyzing incidence data from U.S. children ages 0-14 years diagnosed with cancer between 1995 and 2001 and residence in a county with agricultural activity finds an elevated risk for malignant bone tumors (OR 2.3) and for subtype osteosarcoma (OR 2.7) at high agricultural activity (greater than 60% of county acreage devoted to farming). Also linked to Ewing’s sarcoma (OR 4.3) at high agricultural activity and for oat crop acreage and Ewing’s (OR 2.3)
    [Carrozza, S.E., et al. 2008. Environ Health Perspect 116(4):559-565.]
  • Ewing’s bone sarcoma, paternal occupational exposure, and other factors
    A study of Ewing’s bone sarcoma patients shows an elevated risk for children whose fathers are engaged in agricultural occupations during the period from six months prior to conception of the patient to the time of diagnosis (8.8 OR) and for children whose fathers had occupational exposure to herbicides, pesticides, or fertilizers (6.1 OR).
    [Holly, E.A., at al. 1992. Am J Epidemiol 135(2):122-129.]
  • Parental occupational exposures and Ewing’s sarcoma
    A NIH case-control study finds that although exposure to pesticides is not significantly associated with Ewing’s sarcoma, a higtory of household pesticide extermination is associated with ES among boy aged 15 years or younger (OR 3.0).
    [Moore, L.E., et al. 2005. Int J Cancer 114(3):472-478.]

Brain Cancer

Childhood Brain Cancer

Adult Brain Cancer

Breast Cancer

  • Environmental exposure and breast cancer among young women in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    A case series study in Brazil find an increased risk of breast cancer for residential use of pesticides during adulthood.
    [Ortega Jacome, G.P., et al. 2010. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 73(13-14):858-65.]
  • Pesticides and breast cancer risk: a comparison between developed and developing countries
    Literature review links DDT to breat cancer in the developing world. According to the authors, there is a dearth of studies in developing countries, which cannot be made up for generalizing the results from developed countries to the developing and third world.
    [Shakeel MK, George PS, Jose J, Jose J, Mathew A. 2010. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2010;11(1):173-80.]
  • Reported residential pesticide use and breast cancer risk on  Long Island, New York
    A population based, case control study of Long Island, New York breast cancer cases finds an increased risk associated with: (a) lifetime residential pesticide use (OR 1.39); (b) application of lawn insecticides themselves (OR 1.56) and is higher if it is in liquid form (OR 1.77) or a combination of product type for outdoor plants (OR 1.83); (c) professional application of pesticides in a vegetable and fruit garden more than doubled (OR 2.29); and, (d) application of pesticides for insects or diseases on outdoor plants by self (OR 1.58) or by professional (OR 1.79).
    [Teitelbaum, S.L., et al. 2007. American Journal of Epidemiology 165(6):643-651.]
  • Breast cancer and serum organochlorine residues.
    The aim of this study was to compare the blood levels of total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in samples collected at the time of breast cancer discovery, in order to avoid the potential consequences of body weight change (after chemotherapy or radiotherapy) on the pesticide residue levels. Blood levels of HCB and total DDT were compared in 159 women with breast cancer and 250 presumably healthy controls. Risk of breast cancer associated with organochlorine concentration was evaluated.Mean levels of total DDT and HCB were significantly higher for breast cancer patients than for controls. No differences in serum levels of total DDT or HCB were found between oestrogen receptor positive and oestrogen receptor negative patients with breast cancer.These results add to the growing evidence that certain persistent pollutants may occur in higher concentrations in blood samples from breast cancer patients than controls.
    [Charlier C, Albert A, Herman P, et al.2003. Occup Environ Med. 60(5):348-51.]
  • Breast cancer risk in Hispanic agricultural workers in California
    A registry-based case control study of breast cancer in farm labor union members in California finds risk of breast cancer to be associated with mushroom crops (OR 6.0) as well as the use of chlordane, malathion, and 2,4-D. According to the study, risk associated with chemical use is stronger in younger women and those with early-onset breast cancer.
    [Mills, P.K. and Yang, R. 2005. Int J Occup Environ Health 11(2):123-131.] Occupational histories of cancer patients in a Canadian cancer treatment center and the generated hypothesis regarding breast cancer and farming
    A Canadian study of newly diagnosed breast cancer patients and woman with other cancers finds that women 55 years and younger who had ever farmed has a significantly increased risk of breast cancer than any other type of occupation.
    [Brophy, J., et al. 2002. International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health 8(4):346-353.]
  • Mammographic findings and occupational exposure to pesticides currently in use on Crete
    Women occupationally exposed to pesticides in Crete greenhouses have higher risks of incidence for number of breast tissue legions, which are risk markers for subsequent invasive breast cancer.
    [Dolapsakis, G., et al. 2001. Eur J Cancer 37(12):1531-1536.]
  • Identification of occupational cancer risks in British Columbia
    A population based case-control study of breast cancer cases in British Columbia finds excess risk for females in occupations as crop farmers and those in the fruit and vegetable industries.
    [Band, P.R., et al. 2000. J Occup Environ Med 42(3):284-310.]A population-based case-control study of farming and breast cancer in North Carolina
    A population based, case control study of North Carolina female farmers finds that while farmers in general tend to have lower breast cancer risk, for those women who reported being present in fields during or shortly after a pesticide application (OR 1.8) and for those who reported not using protective clothing while applying pesticides (OR 2.0) are at increased risk for breast cancer.
    [Duell, E.J., et al. 2000. Epidemiology 11(5):523-531.

Cervical Cancer

Colorectal Cancer

Eye Cancer

Gallbladder Cancer

Kidney/Renal Cancer

Larynx Cancer

Leukemia

Childhood Leukemia

  • Residential exposures to pesticides and childhood leukemia
    The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of published studies on the association between residential/household/domestic exposure to pesticides and childhood leukaemia, and to provide a quantitative estimate of the risk. Publications in English were searched in MEDLINE (1966-31 December 2009) and from the reference list of identified publications. Separate analyses were conducted after stratification for exposure time windows, residential exposure location, biocide category and type of leukaemia. Statistically significant associations with childhood leukaemia were observed when combining all studies. Exposure during and after pregnancy was positively associated with childhood leukaemia, with the strongest risk for exposure during pregnancy. Other stratifications showed the greatest risk estimates for indoor exposure, for exposure to insecticides as well as for acute non-lymphocytic leukaemia (ANLL). Outdoor exposure and exposure of children to herbicides (after pregnancy) were not significantly associated with childhood leukaemia. Findings support the assumption that residential pesticide exposure may be a contributing risk factor for childhood leukaemia but available data were too scarce for causality ascertainment. It may be opportune to consider preventive actions, including educational measures, to decrease the use of pesticides for residential purposes and particularly the use of indoor insecticides during pregnancy.
    [Van Maele-Fabry G, Lantin AC, Hoet P, Lison D. 2011. Environ Int. 37(1):280-91.]
  • Residential pesticides and childhood leukemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    A meta-analysis of 15 studies on residential pesticide use and childhood leukemia finds an association with exposure during pregnancy, as well as to insecticides and herbicides. An association is also found for exposure to insecticides during childhood.
    [Turner, M.C., et al. 2010. Environ Health Perspect 118(1):33-41]
  • Residential proximity to agricultural pesticide applications and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia
    A population based, case control study in California using residential histories and proximity to agricultural pesticide use shows an elevated risk of childhood ALL associated with moderate exposure, but not high exposure, to pesticides classified as organophosphates, chlorophenoxy herbicides, and triazines, and with agricultural pesticides used as insecticides or fumigants.
    [Rull, R.P., et al. 2009. Environ Res 109(7):891-9]
  • Pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia and exposure to pesticides.
    A case-control study of children diagnosed with ALL and their mothers in the Washington DC area finds an association between the development of childhood ALL and common household pesticides, as ALL child-mother pairs have elevated levels for the organophosphate metabolites diethylthiophosphate and diethyldithiophosphate and more case mothers (33%) than controls (14%) reported using insecticides in the home.
    [Soldin, O.P., et al. 2009. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring 31(4):495-501]
  • Risk of childhood cancers associated with residence in agriculturally intense areas in the United States
    An ecological study analyzing incidence data from U.S. children ages 0-14 years diagnosed with cancer between 1995 and 2001 and residence in a county with agricultural activity finds an elevated risk for AML at high agricultural activity (greater than 60% of county acreage devoted to farming).
    [Carrozza, S.E., et al. 2008. Environ Health Perspect 116(4):559-565]
  • Parental occupational exposure to pesticides and the risk of childhood leukemia in Costa Rica.
    In a Costa Rica population-based, case-control study, researchers find parental occupational exposure to pesticides increases the risk of childhood leukemia. Maternal pesticide exposure doubles offspring leukemia risk, whether before conception (OR 2.4), or during the first (OR 22) or second trimesters (OR 4.5) the risk is significant. Paternal pesticide exposure during the second trimester also increases risk (1.5 OR) in offspring. In regards to organophosphates, maternal exposure during the first trimester is three and a half times higher (OR 3.5). Exposure to benzimidazole pesticides during pregnancy also has twice the risk for childhood leukemia (OR 2.2)
    [Monge, P., et al. 2007. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health 33(4):293-303]
  • Household exposure to pesticides and risk of childhood hematopoietic malignancies: The ESCALE study (SFCE).
    A French registry-based case-control study finds that children born to mothers living in households with pesticide use during pregnancy have over twice as much risk of acute leukemia.
    [Rudant, J., et al. 2007. Environmental Health Perspectives 115(12):1787-1793]
  • Association between prenatal pesticide exposures and the generation of leukemia-associated T(8;21)
    A study analyzing umbilical cord blood samples of infants whose meconium sample detected the pesticide propoxur, finds a two-fold increase incidence of t(8;21)(a22;a22), one of the most common cytogenetic abnormalities in childhood acute myeloid leukemia, suggesting that prenatal pesticide exposure is a factor in the generation of leukemia-associated chromosomal translocations.
    [Lafiura, K.M., et al. 2007. Pediatr Blood Cancer 48(5):624-628]
  • Household exposure to pesticides and risk of childhood acute leukaemia
    A study of household pesticide exposure and childhood acute leukemia finds an increased risk for maternal home insecticide use during pregnancy and during childhood, and with garden insecticide use and fungicide use during childhood. Pyrethroid and lindane lice shampoo treatment is also associated with childhood acute leukemia. The majority of the childhood cancers were acute lymphocytic leukemia.
    [Menegaux, F., et al. 2006. Occup Environ Med 63(2):131-134]
  • Child and maternal household chemical exposure and the risk of acute leukemia in children with Down's syndrome: a report from the Children's Oncology Group
    Children with Down’s syndrome have about a 20-fold increased risk for developing leukemia. A case-control study of acute leukemia in children with Down’s syndrome finds a positive association for acute lymphoblastic leukemia and maternal exposure to professional pest exterminations and to any pesticide.
    [Alderton, L.E., et al. 2006. American Journal of Epidemiology 164(3):212-221]
  • Agricultural pesticide use and childhood cancer in California.
    Looking at residential proximity to agricultural pesticides, a population-based case-control study of early childhood cancer, ages 0-4 years, in California finds an elevated risk for leukemia associated with probable and possible carcinogen use and with nearby agricultural applications of organochlorines and organophosphates during pregnancy (metam sodium OR 2.05 and dicofol OR 1.83)
    [Reynolds, P, et al. 2005. Epidemiology 16(1):93-100]
  • Critical windows of exposure to household pesticides and risk of childhood leukemia.
    A case-control study in California finds a significant increased risk of childhood leukemia to the use of professional indoor pesticide applications at any time from one year before birth to three years after. In addition, frequency of exposure to pesticides was also linked with increased risk
    [Ma, X., et al. 2002. Critical windows of exposure to household pesticides and risk of childhood leukemia. Environmental Health Perspectives 110:955-960]
  • Transplacental chemical exposure and risk of infant leukemia with MLL gene fusion
    A small case-control, population-based study finds a significant increase risk for infant acute leukemia for maternal exposure to insecticides (OR 9.68) during pregnancy, including the carbamate propoxur.
    [Alexander, F.E., et al. 2001. Cancer Res 61(6):2542-2546]
  • Risk of childhood leukemia associated with exposure to pesticides and with gene polymorphisms.
    A population-based case-control study of childhood ALL finds an increased risk for homeowner use of indoor insecticides and garden and interior plant pesticides, in particular with use during pregnancy and among carriers of the CYP1A1m1 and CYP1a1m2 gene mutations.
    [Infante-Rivard, C., et al. 1999. Epidemiology 10(5):481-487]
  • Childhood leukaemia and exposure to pesticides: results of a case-control study in northern Germany
    A population-based case-control study in Northern Germany finds a significant association for pesticide use in gardens and childhood leukemia.
    [Meinert, E., et al. 1996. Eur J Cancer32A(11):1943-1948]
  • Home pesticide use and childhood cancer: A case-control study
    A case-control study in Denver finds home use of pest strips containing dichlorvos is linked to childhood leukemia. The highest risk is found for exposure during the last 3 months of pregnancy, for exposure during the 2 years prior to diagnosis, and for exposure from birth through 2 years prior to diagnosis.
    [Leiss, J., et al. 1995. American Journal of Public Health 85:249-252]
  • Case-control study on the association between a cluster of childhood haematopoietic malignancies and local environmental factors in Aalsmeer, The Netherlands.
    A small case-control study of a flower cultivation community in the Netherlands finds an increase risk for childhood hematopoietic malignancies, such as leukemia, for parental occupational use of pesticides.
    [Mulder, Y.M., et al. 1994. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 48:161-165]
  • Epidemiological characteristics of childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia. Analysis by immunophenotype. The Childrens Cancer Group.
    A California study shows children’s exposure to insecticides is associated with a five-fold increase in childhood ALL.
    [Buckley, J.D., et al. 1994. Leukemia 8(5):856-864]
  • Parental occupation and other environmental factors in the etiology of leukemias and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas in childhood: a case-control study
    A hospital-based case-control study in Italy finds a positive association with paternal work as a farmer and childhood ALL
    [Magnani, C., et al. 1990. Tumori 76(5):413-419]
  • A population-based case-control study of childhood leukemia in Shanghai
    A population based case-control study in China of childhood leukemia cases finds an association between ALL with maternal occupational exposure to pesticides.
    [Shu, X.O., et al. 1988. Cancer 62(3):635-644]
  • Occupational Exposures of Parents of Children with Acute Nonlymphocytic Leukemia: A Report from the Childrens Cancer Study Group
    A case-control study finds a consistent pattern of association of AML, also known as acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia (ANLL), risk with paternal exposure to pesticides for jobs held longer than three years, which is substantially increased for children under age 6 at diagnosis. An elevated risk is also found for a child’s direct exposure to pesticides in the home and for maternal exposure to home pesticides at the time of pregnancy.
    [Buckley, J.D., et al. 1989. Cancer Research 49:4030-4037]
  • Environmental factors in childhood leukaemia.
    A small French case-control study finds paternal occupational exposures to pesticides as a risk factor for leukemia (12 cases versus 3 controls)
    [Laval, G. and Tuyns, A.J. 1988. British Journal of Industrial Medicine 45:843-844]
  • Childhood leukemia and parents' occupational and home exposures.
    A case-control study in California finds household pesticide use can more than triple the risk of childhood leukemia and that garden pesticides increase the risk to over six-fold.
    [Lowengart, R., et al. 1987. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 79(1):39-46]

Adult Leukemia

Lip Cancer

  • Pesticide sales and adult male cancer mortality in Brazil
    A study of pesticides sales different parts of Brazil and cancer mortality rates a decade later finds pesticide sales show statistically significant correlation with the mortality rates for several cancers, including cancer of the lip.
    [Chrisman, J.D., et al. 2008. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 212(3):310-21]
  • Swedish agricultural workers: A group with a decreased risk of cancer
    A Swedish study based on a cancer registry of agricultural workers finds an increased risk of cancer of the lip by a factor of greater than 2.
    [Wiklund, K. 1983. Cancer 51(3):566-568.]
  • Cancer mortality among Iowa farmers: recent results, time trends, and lifestyle factors (United States)
    Younger farmers (aged 20 to 64 years) had excess deaths for colon cancer (proportional mortality ratio 1.52) and skin melanoma (proportional mortality ratio 1.60), while older farmers (aged 65+ years) had excess deaths for cancers of the pancreas (proportional mortality ratio 1.18), lip (proportional mortality ratio 1.58), and leukemia (proportional mortality ratio 1.26).
    [Cerhan, J.R., et al. 1998. Cancer Causes Control 9(3):311-319]

Liver/Hepatic Tumors

Lung Cancer

Lymphoma

Hodgkin's Lymphoma

Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

Melanoma

Mouth Cancer

Multiple Myeloma

Neuroblastoma

Oesophageal Cancer

Ovarian Cancer

Pancreatic Cancer

Prostate Cancer

  • Cancer mortality among Iowa farmers: recent results, time trends, and lifestyle factors (United States)
    A cancer mortality study of Iowa farmers shows an excess of deaths for cancers of the prostate (1.26 PMR).
    [Cerhan, J.R., et al. 1998. Cancer Causes Control 9(3):311-319.]
  • Mortality among white and nonwhite farmers in North Carolina, 1976-1978
    A mortality study of farmers in North Carolina finds an increased frequency of prostate cancer among white decedents under 65 years of age (PMR 1.6).
    [Delzell, E., and Grufferman, S. 1985. Am J Epidemiol 121(3):391-402.]
  • Cancer among farmers in central Italy
    A case-referent study of Italian farmers finds a possible relationship between wheat crops and prostate cancer.
    [Forastiere, F, et al. 1993. Scand J Work Environ Health 19(6):382-389.]
  • Meta-analyses of prostate cancer and farming
    A meta-analyses of prostate cancer and farming studies between 1983 and 1994 finds a positive association between prostate cancer and farming, which the study authors attribute to exposure to hormonally active agricultural chemicals.
    [Keller-Byrne, J.E., et al. 1997. Am J Ind Med 31(5):580-586.]
  • Use of agricultural pesticides and prostate cancer risk in the Agricultural Health Study cohort
    A prospective cohort study of Iowa and North Carolina male pesticide applicators finds that the two highest exposure scenarios (OR 2.73 and 3.47) significantly increase risk for prostate cancer. Significant interaction odds ratios occurred among persons who used butylate (OR 1.93); four organophosphorothioate insecticides including coumaphos (OR 2.58), fonofos (OR 2.04), chlorpyrifos (OR 1.65), and phorate (OR 1.64); and a pyrethroid, permethrin (for animal use) (OR 2.31).
    [Alavanja, M., et al. 2003. American Journal of Epidemiology 157:800-814.]
  • Cancer incidence in a cohort of licensed pesticide applicators in Florida
    A standardized incidence ratio anaylsis (SIR) of licensed pesticide applicators in Florida, compared with Florida’s general population, finds an increased incidence rate for prostate cancer (SIR 1.91).
    [Fleming, L., et al. 1999. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 41(4):279-288.]
  • A case-control study of farming and prostate cancer in African-American and Caucasian men
    A population-based case-control study in South Carolina finds farming is associated with increase risk of prostate cancer in Caucasians (OR 1.8) but not African-Americans. The study also finds that farmers who mixed or applied pesticides have a greater risk (OR 1.6); and, the increased risk is found only for those farming less than 5 years. The authors conclude that the racial difference “may be explained by different farming activities or different gene-environment interactions by race.” [Meyer, T.E., et al. 2007. Occup Environ Med 64(3):155-160.]
  • Proportionate mortality study of golf course superintendents
    A mortality study of a cohort of 686 deceased U.S. male golf course superintendents from the finds elevated levels for prostate cancer (PMR 293).
    [Kross, B.C., et al. 1996. Am J Ind Med 29(5):501-506.]
  • Pesticide sales and adult male cancer mortality in Brazil
    A study of pesticides sales in different parts of Brazil and cancer mortality rates a decade later finds pesticide sales show statistically significant correlation with the mortality rates for several cancers, including prostate cancer (r=0.69; p=0.019).
    [Chrisman, J.D., et al. 2008. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 212(3):310-21]
  • Prostate cancer risk in California farm workers
    Hispanic farmworkers are found to be at an increased risk for prostate cancer when exposed to relatively high levels of certain organochlorines, organophosphates, fumigants and triazine herbicides.
    [Mills, P.K. and Yang, R. 2003. J Occup Environ Med  45(3):249-258.]
  • Occupation and prostate cancer
    Occupational exposures to pesticides including farmers, forestry workers or horticulturists finds a slight increased risk among farmers, speculating that certain pesticides act as hormone modifiers and influence the prostate cancer risk.
    [Parent, M. and Siemiatycki, J. 2001. Epidemiologic Reviews 23(1):138-143.]
  • Prostate cancer and exposure to pesticides in agricultural settings
    Individuals that have worked in agriculture is associated with a 40% increased risk of prostate cancer (OR 1.4)
    [Settimi, L., et al. 2003. Int J Cancer 104(4):458-461.]
  • Cancer incidence among triazine herbicide manufacturing workers
    Workers at a triazine manufacturing plant are found to have an elevated number of prostate cancer cases.
    [MacLennan, P.A., et al. 2002. J Occup Environ Med 44(11):1048-1058.]
  • Occupation and prostate cancer risk in Sweden
    Swedish stuy shows significantly elevated standardized incidence ratio are found in farmers and ceratin occupations and industries with exposures to herbicides and fertilizers. Results suggest that farmers; certain occupations and industries with exposures to cadmium, herbicides, and fertilizers; and men with low occupational physical activity levels have elevated prostate cancer risks.
    [Sharma-Wagner, S., et al. 2000. J Occup Environ Med 42(5):517-525.]
  • Prostate cancer in pesticide applicators in Swedish agriculture
    A cohort of over 20,000 licensed agriculture pesticide applicators in Sweden finds a statistically significant increased risk of prostate cancer.
    [Dich, J., and Wiklund, K. 1998. Prostate 34(2):100-112.]
  • Farming and prostate cancer among African-Americans in the Southeastern Untied States
    A study looking at African-American farmers shows further support that prostate cancer risk is associated with farming occupations.
    [Dosemeci, M., et al. 1994. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 86(22):1718-1719.]
  • Farming and prostate cancer mortality
    A restrospective cohort study of male farmers find an increased risk associationed with acres of farmland sprayed with herbicides and dying from prostate cancer. No other farm activity examined in the study was associated with any detectable pattern of increased or decreased risk.
    [Morrison, H., et al. 1993. American Journal of Epidemiology 137(3):270-280.]
  • Correlation analysis of pesticide use data and cancer incidence rates in California counties
    An ecological study in California analyzing data on pesticide use and cancer incidence finds a correlation between black males diagnosed with prostate cancer and atrazine and captan.
    [Mills, P.K. 1998. Arch Environ Health 53(6):410-413.]
  • Agent Orange exposure, Vietnam War veterans, and the risk of prostate cancer
    Twice as many Vietnam veterans exposed to Agent Oragne were identified with prostate cancer (239 vs 124 unexposed men, respectively; (OR 2.19). Individuals who were exposed to Agent Orange had an increased incidence of prostate cancer; developed the disease at a younger age, and had a more aggressive variant than their unexposed counterparts.
    [Chamie, K., deVere White, R. W., Lee, D., Ok, J. and Ellison, L. M. 2008. Cancer, 113: 2464–2470.]
  • Use of Agricultural Pesticides and Prostate Cancer Risk in the Agricultural Health Study Cohort
    Using Agriculutral Health Study data, researchers evaluated the role of 45 pesticides and found that a few of them showed evidence of a possible association with prostate cancer among pesticide applicators. Methyl bromide was linked to the risk of prostate cancer in the entire group, while exposure to six other pesticides -chlorpyrifos, coumaphos, fonofos, phorate, permethrin, and butylate- was associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer among men with a family history of the disease.
    [Alavanja MC, et al. 2003. Am J Epidemiol 157(9):800-14.]

Sinonasal cancer

Soft Tissue Sarcoma

Stomach Cancer

Testicular Cancer

Thyroid Cancer

  • Nitrate intake and the risk of thyroid cancer and thyroid disease
    Study finds an increased risk of thyroid cancer with higher average nitrate levels in public water supplies (nitrate is a contaminant of drinking water in agricultural areas) and with longer consumption of water exceeding 5 mg/L nitrate-N (for >or=5 years at >5 mg/L, relative risk = 2.6).
    [Ward MH, et al. 2010. Epidemiology. 21(3):389-95].
  • Risk of childhood cancers associated with residence in agriculturally intense areas in the United States
    An ecological study analyzing incidence data from U.S. children ages 0-14 years diagnosed with cancer between 1995 and 2001 and residence in a county with moderate to high agricultural activity finds statistically significantly elevated risk for thyroid carcinomas (OR 3.0) at high agricultural activity (greater than 60 percent of the total county acreage is devoted to farming). An increased risk is also found for thyroid carcinomas and oat crop acreage (OR 2.0).
    [Carrozza, S.E., et al. 2008. Environ Health Perspect 116(4):559-565.]

Uteran Cancer

via Information Services: Pesticide-Induced Diseases Database: Cancer — Beyond Pesticides.

https://wp.me/p1jq40-62b