Integrated Pest Management
& Least Toxic Pesticides
Applied As A Last Resort
November 14th, 2012
American Phytopathological Society, Entomological Society of America, and Weed Science Society of America
Selected and Adapted Excerpts
Recommendations and decisions to use « least toxic pesticides » and « pesticides as a last resort » have flourished since the early 2000s.
But according to three scientific organizations ― Weed Science Society of America ( WSSA ), American Phytopathological Society ( APS ), and Plant-Insect Ecosystems Section of the Entomological Society of America ( P-IE ESA ) ―
« Least toxic pesticides » and « pesticides as a last resort » are NOT THE CORRECT APPROACHES to the pesticide component of an Integrated Pest Management ( IPM ) program.
NO BENEFIT and NO SCIENTIFIC BASIS
There is NO BENEFIT and NO SCIENTIFIC BASIS to simplistic messages like « use least toxic pesticides as a last resort » for the large number of end-users who apply pest control products according to the label and practice good stewardship.
Nor are these messages beneficial for those who neither seek training nor adequately read the label — believing instead that it is safe, practical, and effective to simply choose a product considered a « least toxic pesticide » and apply it only as a « last resort ».
These messages hinder safety and stewardship education and practices that are in the best interest of the end-user, our food supply, public health, and ecosystem preservation.
American Phytopathological Society, Entomological Society of America, and Weed Science Society of America do not promote the use of pest control products above other pest management techniques.
Pest control products should ONLY be used when needed, when risks to non-target organisms and habitats have been carefully considered, and when diligent attention will be given to following all label directions and other applicable laws.
In addition, general and product-specific stewardship must always be practiced to prevent undesired effects under the particular application conditions.
IPM is Fundamental Wherever Pests Must Be Controlled
It is essential to practice Integrated Pest Management, whether managing weeds, insect pests or plant diseases — on the farm, on commercial sites, on public lands, or in or around the home.
Key components of Integrated Pest Management include making the habitat unfavorable for pests, excluding pests where feasible, using proper sanitation practices, monitoring the infestation level, knowing the pest tolerance level for the specific situation and implementing the necessary management practices.
Judicious use of pest control products is a critical component of many Integrated Pest Management programs.
Judicious ( careful ) use refers to various practices — following all label directions and making all appropriate stewardship decisions required in the particular situation.
This includes applying a product registered for the target pest(s) after accurate pest identification, and consideration of the level of infestation and the potential for economic, health or other negative pest impacts.
Careful use extends beyond pest control products to household chemicals, automobiles, medicines, alcoholic beverages, and countless other products that are part of our daily lives.
Pest control products are an important component of many Integrated Pest Management programs for a variety of reasons.
A fungicide, for example, may prevent disease, have curative effects, induce plant resistance to disease, or promote plant health and yield.
The most important message is to follow the label — the entire label, including all safety and other precautions — and practice good stewardship.
Suggesting that only « least toxic pesticides » be used, as a « last resort », IGNORES the extensive research, regulatory, educational and stewardship efforts that make important pest control tools available and define their proper and safe use in Integrated Pest Management programs.
National Road Map for Integrated Pest Management
No pest management-related term has been defined in so many different ways as « Integrated Pest Management ».
American Phytopathological Society, Entomological Society of America, and Weed Science Society of America strongly oppose a non-scientific approach to Integrated Pest Management, and re-endorse National Road Map definition by United States Department of Agriculture ―
Integrated Pest Management, or IPM, is a long-standing, science-based, decision-making process that identifies and reduces risks from pests and pest management related strategies.
It coordinates the use of pest biology, environmental information, and available technology to prevent unacceptable levels of pest damage by the most economical means, while posing the least possible risk to people, property, resources and the environment.
IPM provides an effective strategy for managing pests in all arenas, from developed agricultural, residential, and public areas to wild lands.
IPM serves as an umbrella to provide an effective, all encompassing, low-risk approach to protect resources and people from pests.
FAILURE OF INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT ( IPM ) – #@!!% IPM NONSENSE ( Web-Page )
The Problem with Selecting Only « Least Toxic Pesticides »
« Least toxic » implies there are pest control products available for every pest spectrum that are least toxic to everything else.
This is NOT TRUE.
The toxicity of a pest control product depends on what is being evaluated — short-term or long-term toxicity — and who or what may be affected ( e.g. applicators, farm-workers, livestock, wildlife, pets, birds, fish, beneficial insects, earthworms, sediment-dwelling organisms, crops ).
It is also important to remember that TOXICITY IS NOT THE SAME AS RISK.
RISK is DEPENDENT ON BOTH TOXICITY AND EXPOSURE.
The risk associated with the use of pest control products and other chemicals is managed by establishing safe exposure levels based on the toxicity specific to each product.
Assigning a « most » or « least » toxic rating does not equate to actual risk when the product is PROPERLY applied.
For example, the label of a pest control product that may cause skin irritation will also contain requirements for personal protective equipment that safeguards the skin, while a product that may affect fish will contain use directions, precautions and possibly even restrictions intended to protect fish.
This is why the government-approved label instructions MUST be followed.
All pest control products — including those referred to as « least toxic », « organic », and « natural » — are toxic to one or more pests and possibly humans and other organisms as well.
Use of these terms can LEAD TO FALSE SECURITY regarding the need for careful handling of pest control products and proper environmental stewardship.
Over-reliance on a « least toxic pesticide » can CAUSE NEW PROBLEMS.
For example, GLYPHOSATE is considered a « least toxic herbicide » choice, but over-reliance on it has led to significant WEED RESISTANCE PROBLEMS.
Over-use or misuse of ANY pest management tactic can CAUSE PROBLEMS — for example, CULTIVATION to control weeds on hilly land can cause soil erosion, and EXCESSIVE HAND-HOEING can cause back injuries and increase the risk of skin cancer.
Often, « least toxic » products DO NOT WORK AS WELL ON THE PEST(S), LEADING TO THE NEED FOR RE-TREATMENT with another pest control product on larger and/or harder-to-control pest infestations.
This can result in HIGHER COSTS, REDUCED CONTROL, and UNDESIRABLE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS attributable to the pest.
The Problem With « Last Resort »
« Last resort » implies that pest control products will work as well when every non-chemical control technique is attempted first.
However, DELAYING APPLICATION of a pest control product CAN CAUSE BUILD-UP of the pest(s) in crops, gardens, buildings and other sites, with negative impacts on yield, quality and/or health.
In fact, DELAYING TREATMENT can SIGNIFICANTLY INCREASE THE ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC DAMAGE to crop and non-crop areas.
Using pest control products as the last line of defense can result in a more limited choice of products, as well as reduced crop tolerance, the need for higher rates, and less effective control because of higher infestation levels and/or more tolerant pest stages.
For example, seedling weeds and early-stage insect larvae and diseases are usually more easily controlled than later pest stages.
Effective pest control product choices, when they are applied as a « last resort », means fewer options to rotate pest control products, which is a critical step in preventing a pest from becoming resistant to a pest control product.
« Last resort » strategies may also INCREASE THE NEED FOR MULTIPLE PRODUCTS and HIGHER APPLICATION RATES to control the pest effectively.
« Last resort » suggests pest control products are always the WORST CHOICE.
This is NOT TRUE.
First using non-chemical techniques that are ineffective or inefficient has the potential to ADD TO THE COST OF PEST MANAGEMENT, INTENSIFY THE PEST PROBLEM, or CREATE NEW PROBLEMS.
Branding pest control products as the « last resort » choice certainly does not stimulate a strong public interest in funding education on their proper use.
Pest control products are widely used, but discretionary federal funding of the U.S. Pesticide Safety Education Program has been eliminated in 2011 and 2012.
This program is vital to educate pest control product users and dealers who must be certified to apply or sell pest control products, and to teach the public how to use pest control products safely.
Weed Science Society of America
Weed Science Society of America, a non-profit scientific society, was founded in 1956 to encourage and promote the development of knowledge concerning weeds and their impact on the environment.
Weed Science Society of America promotes research, education and extension outreach activities related to weeds, provides science-based information to the public and policy makers, fosters awareness of weeds and their impact on managed and natural ecosystems, and promotes cooperation among weed science organizations across the nation and around the world.
American Phytopathological Society
American Phytopathological Society ( APS ) is a non-profit, professional scientific organization.
The research of the organization’s more than 5,000 world-wide members advances the understanding of the science of plant pathology and its application to plant health.
Entomological Society of America
Entomological Society of America ( ESA ) is the largest organization in the world serving the professional and scientific needs of entomologists and people in related disciplines.
Founded in 1889, Entomological Society of America today has more than 6,000 members affiliated with educational institutions, health agencies, private industry and government.
Members are researchers, teachers, extension service personnel, administrators, marketing representatives, research technicians, consultants, students and hobbyists.
NORAHG is the National Organization Responding Against HUJE that seek to harm the Green space industry.
Communities and businesses are being HARMED by PROHIBITIONS against the use of pest control products in the Urban Landscape.
NORAHG morally represents the VAST SILENT MAJORITY of people associated with turf and ornamental plant maintenance who are OPPOSED to Anti Pesticide PROHIBITION and the CLOSURE or ABANDONMENT of green spaces under the RIDICULOUS PRETEXT of somehow « saving » the environment.
NORAHG is a NATIONAL NON PROFIT NON PARTISAN organization that does not accept money from corporations or governments or trade associations, and represents NO VESTED INTERESTS WHATSOEVER.
NORAHG is dedicated to reporting the work of RESPECTED and HIGHLY RATED EXPERTS who promote ENVIRONMENTAL REALISM and PESTICIDE TRUTHS.
NORAHG pledges to deliver reports that are worthy of peoples’ time and of peoples’ concern, reports that might ordinarily never have breached the parapet.
NORAHG was the brainchild of William H. Gathercole and his colleagues in 1991. Mr. Gathercole is now retired, although his name continues to appear as founder.
For the original copy of this Force Of Nature Report, go to the following link …
For the Pesticide Truths Report, go to the following link …
Here are previous reports, just in case you missed them …
UPDATES & WARNINGS – 2,4-D – CANADIAN CANCER SOCIETY – FIESTA – GLYPHOSATE – GOLF INDUSTRY – HEALTH ISSUES – IPM – IPRODIONE – KILLER PLANTS – MANUFACTURERS – PROHIBITION – QUINTOZENE – SEEDS – WATER QUALITY ( Web-Page )
NORAHG has archived more information on The Pesticide Truths Web-Site …
THE PESTICIDE TRUTHS WEB-SITE
PESTICIDE BANS ARE A FARCE ( Report )
REAL TRENDS AGAINST PESTICIDE BANS ( Web-Page )
CARNAGE LEADING TO GARBAGE DUMP GREEN SPACES – WHO WANTS TO LIVE IN #@!!% PEST-INFESTED GARBAGE DUMPS ?!?! ( Web-Page )
CARNAGE LEADING TO GARBAGE DUMP GREEN SPACES ( Photo Gallery )
GOLF DESTRUCTION – GOLF IS NEXT ( Web-Page )
WHITE PAPER – OFFICIALS ARE THINKING TWICE BEFORE BANNING PESTICIDES ( Report )
THE COMPLETE LIBRARY OF REPORTS & REFERENCES ( Web-Page )
PESTICIDE TRUTHS REPORTS ( Web-Page )