Hollow-tine cultivation can help reduce the loss of applied pest control products and fertilizers.
Research at the Agricultural Research Service Soil and Water Management Research Unit in Saint Paul, Minnesota, indicates that there are management practices that can be used as a preventive measure to protect water resources around a golf facility.
63 days after turfgrass cultivation and within 39 hours of an application of pest control product, scientists measured a 10 per cent reduction in RUN-OFF volume and a 15 to 24 per cent reduction in pesticide transport in RUN-OFF from plots receiving hollow-tine cultivation compared to those receiving solid-tine cultivation.
Hollow-tine cultivation reduced surface-water concentrations of pest control products to levels below those that are harmful to sensitive aquatic organisms.
Golf Course Pesticide Run-Off
October 1st, 2012
United States Department of Agriculture
Selected and Adapted Excerpts
At last count, around 27 million golfers in the United States have been teeing up for rounds on approximately 16,000 golf courses.
Each golf course has either 9 or 18 holes, so well over 100,000 fairways ― which typically make up a third of a golf course ― are carefully tended and pampered.
Golf courses are often close to ponds, streams, and lakes, and the chemicals used to maintain the grounds have been found in surface waters of urban water-sheds.
Now, studies by Agricultural Research Service chemist Pamela Rice on pesticide and nutrient losses from fairways have given landscape crews some environmentally-friendly ideas for maintaining the popular green playgrounds.
Pamela Rice works at the Agricultural Research Service ( ARS ) Soil and Water Management Research Unit in Saint Paul, Minnesota.
According to Pamela Rice ―
Our research indicates that there are management practices you can use as a preventative measure to protect water resources around golf courses.
Cultivation Method Affects Pesticide Fate
Pamela Rice worked with University of Minnesota professor Brian Horgan to design a series of studies at the University of Minnesota Turf Research, Outreach, and Education Center in Saint Paul.
One project simply measured the quantity of pesticides in RUN-OFF from creeping bentgrass ( Agrostis palustris ) turf managed as a golf course fairway.
The scientists applied the pesticides chlorpyrifos, flutolanil, mecoprop-p, 2,4-D, and dicamba to the experimental fairways and then measured the amount of the pesticides in RUN-OFF from simulated rain events that occurred within 33 hours of the applications.
Samples taken from edge-of-plot RUN-OFF contained less than 1 to 23 per cent of the total amount of pesticides applied.
With the exception of chlorpyrifos, all the other chemicals were detected in the initial RUN-OFF samples and in samples taken throughout the RUN-OFF events.
Rice and Horgan also evaluated the effects of different types of core cultivation on pesticide concentrations in RUN-OFF.
In HOLLOW-TINE CULTIVATION, soil cores are removed from the turf, air dried, and then brushed back into the open holes.
SOLID-TINE CULTIVATION uses less labor and is less disruptive to the turf surface, but can cause soil compaction.
Core cultivation on golf fairways controls thatch, alleviates surface compaction, improves water infiltration, and stimulates root and shoot growth.
Studying the same group of pesticides 63 DAYS AFTER THE PLOTS WERE CULTIVATED AND WITHIN 39 HOURS OF CHEMICAL APPLICATION, the scientists measured a 10 PER CENT REDUCTION IN RUN-OFF VOLUME and a 15 TO 24 PER CENT REDUCTION IN PESTICIDE TRANSPORT in RUN-OFF from plots receiving HOLLOW-TINE CULTIVATION compared to those receiving SOLID-TINE CULTIVATION.
Samples taken 2 DAYS AFTER THE PLOTS WERE CULTIVATED A SECOND TIME AND WITHIN 39 HOURS OF A SUBSEQUENT CHEMICAL APPLICATION showed a 55 PER CENT REDUCTION IN RUN-OFF VOLUME and a 35 TO 57 PER CENT REDUCTION IN PESTICIDE TRANSPORT.
Rice and Horgan calculated the environmental concentrations of these pesticides in surface water receiving RUN-OFF from turf managed with SOLID-TINE CULTIVATION and found that they would EXCEED LEVELS THAT ARE HARMFUL TO NINE SENSITIVE AQUATIC ORGANISMS.
But HOLLOW-TINE CULTIVATION REDUCED SURFACE-WATER CONCENTRATIONS OF THE PESTICIDES TO LEVELS BELOW THESE FOR MOST OF THESE AQUATIC FAUNA.
Computer Models ― Room for Improvement
Along with ARS agricultural engineer Kevin King, who works at the ARS Soil Drainage Research Unit in Columbus, Ohio, the researchers used the data they collected to evaluate a turfgrass RUN-OFF MODEL called « TurfPQ ».
This model estimates pesticide levels in RUN-OFF associated with moderate rainfall, and they wanted to see how accurately TurfPQ predicted pesticide transport in RUN-OFF associated with more intense rainfall.
They compared RUN-OFF data from 13 artificial rainfall events to estimates provided by TurfPQ for the same conditions.
The scientists found that the model’s estimates were lower than the actual measurements for transport of dicamba, 2,4-D, flutolanil, and chlorpyrifos.
The model predicted that RUN-OFF would begin later than it actually did, which in turn increased error estimates for the amount of pesticides available for offsite transport via RUN-OFF.
As a result of these findings, they concluded that with some tweaking, TurfPQ could provide better pesticide-loss estimates during intense storm events.
What About Fertilizers ?
Rice and Horgan also used their experimental plots to study differences between how HOLLOW-TINE CULTIVATION and SOLID-TINE CULTIVATION affected nitrogen and phosphorus retention on fertilized fairways.
In surface waters, these two nutrients feed the growth of algae, and when the algae die, their decomposition depletes oxygen levels in the water.
These conditions contribute to deterioration of local water-ways and downstream aquatic environments.
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ( EPA ) has established phosphorus limits for lakes and streams and nitrate nitrogen limits for our drinking water.
Using the same experimental turfgrass fairways that were used for the pesticide studies, the researchers measured RUN-OFF volume and amounts of soluble phosphorus, ammonium nitrogen, and nitrate nitrogen that were lost via RUN-OFF.
As with their pesticide studies, Rice and Horgan found LOWER NUTRIENT CONCENTRATIONS IN RUN-OFF from fairway plots that received HOLLOW-TINE CULTIVATION compared to SOLID-TINE CULTIVATION ― UP TO 77 PER CENT LESS 2 days after the plots were cultivated and up to 27 PER CENT LOWER 63 days after cultivation.
They also estimated the environmental concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus in surface water receiving RUN-OFF from the experimental plots.
They found that with one exception, phosphorus concentrations usually remained above EPA water-quality criteria established to limit eutrophication, which can occur when water bodies receive excess nutrients that stimulate excessive plant growth.
( The exception was observed in phosphorus concentrations found in RUN-OFF 2 days after HOLLOW-TINE CULTIVATION. )
However, all estimated environmental concentrations of NITROGEN were BELOW LEVELS ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED ALGAL GROWTH, and NITRATE LEVELS IN RUN-OFF FROM PLOTS RECEIVING EITHER TYPE OF CORE CULTIVATION WERE NOT HIGH ENOUGH TO THREATEN HUMAN HEALTH.
According to Pamela Rice ―
We’ve seen that the total amount of applied chemicals lost from golf courses is more a function of the volume of RUN-OFF than the concentrations of chemicals in the RUN-OFF.
Our studies also show that, even though it is more labor intensive, HOLLOW-TINE CULTIVATION CAN HELP REDUCE THE LOSS OF APPLIED NUTRIENTS AND PESTICIDES FROM FAIRWAYS, which helps protect nearby surface waters.
For the original copy of this Force Of Nature Report, go to the following link …
NORAHG has archived more REPORTS ABOUT WATER QUALITY on The Pesticide Truths Web-Site …
FORCE OF NATURE — WATER QUALITY — 2011 08 09 — MYTH-BUSTING — MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT RUN-OFF & LEACHING ( Report )
FORCE OF NATURE — WATER QUALITY — 2011 01 24 — UPDATE — SURVEY SHOWS FEW PESTICIDES — NORTH DAKOTA ( Report )
Here are previous REFERENCES ABOUT WATER QUALITY, just in case you missed them …
Reference — Water — 2012 10 01 — ARS Scientists Tee Up To Tackle Golf Course Pesticide Runoff
Reference — Water — 2012 05 17 — Domestic Herbicides Detected In Water — Health Canada
Reference — Water — 2012 05 09 — Reducing Pesticide & Nutrient Run-Off — University Of Minnesota
Reference — Water — 2012 03 30 — Long-Term Diet — Leachate Study — Michigan State University
Reference — Water — 2011 12 01 — Detection Limits Can Influence The Interpretation Of Pesticide Monitoring Data In Canadian Surface Waters
Reference — Water — 2011 11 04 — Nitrogen Fertilizers’ Impact On Lawn Soils — American Society of Agronomy
Reference — Water — 2011 06 13 — National Pesticides Monitoring And Surveillance Network — Environment Canada
Reference — Water — 2011 05 00 — Presence & Levels Of Priority Pesticides — Environment Canada
Reference — Water — 2011 04 13 — Frequently-Asked Questions — Health Canada
Reference — Water — 2011 03 00 — Presence & Levels Of Priority Pesticides — Environment Canada
Reference — Water — 2011 01 24 — Water Survey Shows Few Pesticides In North Dakota
Reference — Water — 2010 11 00 — Urban Stream Pesticides — Enviro-Lunatic Report — Ontario
Reference — Water — 2010 04 08 — Role Of Turfgrass — Storm Water Run-Off
Reference — Water — 2010 00 00 — Environmental And Workplace Health — Health Canada
Reference — Water — 2009 07 06 — 2,4-D Amine 600 Herbicide — Label
Reference — Water — 2009 01 00 — Reducing Pesticide And Nutrient Runoff From Fairways — United Stated Golf Association ( USGA )
Reference — Water — 2009 00 00 — Filter Strips — University Of Massachusetts
Reference — Water — 2009 00 00 — Fate of Pesticides — University of Georgia
Reference — Water — 2008 08 05 — dicamba — Re-Evaluation Decision Document — Pest Management Regulatory Agency Of Health Canada ( PMRA ) — 1
Reference — Water — 2008 08 05 — dicamba — Re-Evaluation Decision Document — Pest Management Regulatory Agency Of Health Canada ( PMRA ) — 2
Reference — Water — 2008 06 16 — 2,4-D — Re-Evaluation Decision — Pest Management Regulatory Agency Of Health Canada ( PMRA ) — 1
Reference — Water — 2008 06 16 — 2,4-D — Re-Evaluation Decision — Pest Management Regulatory Agency Of Health Canada ( PMRA ) — 2
Reference — Water — 2007 03 00 — Buffer Strips, Runoff, And Leachate — United Stated Golf Association ( USGA )
Reference — Water — 2007 00 00 — Canadian Water Quality Guidelines — Imidacloprid — Environment Canada
Reference — Water — 2006 08 16 — 2,4-D — Lawn and Turf Uses of 2,4-D — Pest Management Regulatory Agency Of Health Canada ( PMRA )
Reference — Water — 2005 06 15 — Managing Golf Course Roughs To Reduce Runoff — United Stated Golf Association ( USGA )
Reference — Water — 2005 01 00 — Best Management Practices — United Stated Golf Association ( USGA )
Reference — Water — 2005 00 00 — Weed & Feed — Enviro-Lunatic Report — Beyond Pesticides
Reference — Water — 2005 00 00 — A Study of Golf Courses in Canada — friends Of The Environment ( FOE )
Reference — Water — 2004 09 00 — Best Management Practices — United Stated Golf Association ( USGA )
Reference — Water — 2002 10 15 — Modeling Pesticide Runoff from Turf
Reference — Water — 2001 00 00 — Calibration of Computer Model Scenarios
Reference — Water — 2000 08 00 — Pesticide Management Practices on Golf Courses — New Jersey
Reference — Water — 1997 00 00 — Quantifying The Effect Of Turf On Pesticide Fate — Branham
Reference — Water — 1996 03 00 — Loss of Nitrogen And Pesticides From Turf
Reference — Water — 1995 01 00 — Potential Groundwater Contamination — United Stated Golf Association ( USGA )
Reference — Water — 1995 00 00 — Potential Movement Of Certain Pesticides
Reference — Water — 1994 05 00 — The Role of Turfgrasses in Environmental Protection — Beard & Green
Reference — Water — 1990 02 00 — Environmental Fate Of Pesticides — Watschke
Reference — Water — 1989 08 00 — Runoff & Leachate — Penn State University
Reference — Water — 1989 00 00 — Fertilizers, Pesticides, Lawn Care And Water Quality — Penn State University
Reference — Water — 1988 00 00 — Surface Run-Off In Turf — Watschke
Reference — Water — 1986-2006 — Ontario Drinking Water Inspection — Enviro-Lunatic Report
Reference — Water — 1986 00 00 — Future Of Turfgrass Management And Underground Water Quality — Watschke
NORAHG has archived more information on The Pesticide Truths Web-Site …
THE PESTICIDE TRUTHS WEB-SITE
PEST CONTROL PRODUCTS – WATER QUALITY – MYTH ABOUT WATER ( Web-Page )
PESTICIDE BANS ARE A FARCE ( Report )
VICTORIES AGAINST TERRORISTS ! – TREND TOWARDS PESTICIDE BANS HAS STOPPED ( Web-Page )
CARNAGE LEADING TO GARBAGE DUMP GREEN SPACES – WHO WANTS TO LIVE IN #@!!% PEST-INFESTED GARBAGE DUMPS ?!?! ( Web-Page )
CARNAGE LEADING TO GARBAGE DUMP GREEN SPACES ( Photo Gallery )
CARNAGE – GOLF DESTRUCTION – GOLF IS NEXT – CRITICAL ISSUES FOR THE SURVIVAL OF THE GOLF INDUSTRY ( Web-Page )
Improved & Updated
THE COMPLETE LIBRARY OF WEB-PAGES, REPORTS, & REFERENCES
PESTICIDE TRUTHS NEWSLETTER — 2012 09 18 ( Report )
SEND US YOUR PHOTOS OF GARBAGE DUMP GREEN SPACES CAUSED BY ANTI-PESTICIDE PROHIBITION …